Aenus was an important city which stood at the mouth of the Hebrus, and thus commanded the navigation of that river, which brought it into commercial relations with all the eastern regions of Thrace. It did not begin to coin money at so early a date as Abdera, the higher limit of its currency being the middle of the fifth century.
|Head of Hermes in profile, wearing
close fitting petasos.
[Berl. Cat., I. p. 119.]
|Incuse square, within which ΑΙΝΙΟΝ
(retrogr.) around a caduceus.
AR Tetradr. and Diobol.
|Id. (Fig. 154).||Incuse square ΑΙΝΙ Goat standing.
Symbols various:—astragalos; cres-
cent and ivy-leaf or star; term of
Hermes on throne; dog; bipennis;
caduceus; animal’s head; fly; am-
phora; crab; ivy-leaf; mask of
Seilenos; infant Dionysos; owl; &c.
AR Tetradr., Dr., Tetrob. and Diob.
|Similar; ΑΙΝΙ on petasos.
[Z. f. N., v. 184.]
|Incuse square, within which linear
square, containing goat. Magistrate,
ΑΝΤΙΑΔΑΣ. Symbol : naked figure
of Pan. |
|ΑΙΝ Bull on ear of corn.
[Berl. Cat., I. 127.]
|Incuse square of ‘mill-sail’ pattern.
The types of this last coin are borrowed from coins of Byzantium or Calchedon.
The weight-standard of the coins of Aenus appears to be early Rhodian or a light form of the Euboïc-Attic. The tetradrachms of the first period range from 258 to 236 grs. The coin reading ‘Antiadas’ is attributed by von Sallet (Zeit. f. Num., v. 187) to the period 411- 409 B.C., during which an aristocratic form of government was set up under the auspices of the Four Hundred at Athens in some of the tributary Thracian, &c. cities.
In this period the weight of the tetradrachm ranges from 244 to 232 grs. It thus corresponds with the standard introduced about the same time at Rhodes, and has hence been called the Rhodian standard.
|Head of Hermes in profile.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 77.]
|ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Terminal figure of Hermes
standing on throne. |
AV 32.6 grs.
|Head of Hermes facing, in close-fitting petasos (Fig. 155).||ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Goat. Symbols: dolphin;
amphora; monota; rhyton; star;
caduceus and petasos; race-torch;
trophy; vine; eagle; lyre; serpent;
tripod; fly; helmet; wreath; laurel-
branch; astragalos, &c.
AR Tetradr., Tetrob. and Diob.
|Head of Hermes facing, in wide petasos.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 80.]
|ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Terminal figure of Hermes on
throne to left. Symbols: kantharos;
goat’s head; corn-ear; star, &c.
|Head of Hermes, in close or wide petasos. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 80.]||ΑΙ, ΑΙΝΙ or ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Caduceus. Symbols : astragalos; ear of corn; grapes; ram’s head, &c.|
|Id., in wide petasos. [Ibid., p. 81.]||ΑΙΝΙ or ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Goat. Symbols:
caduceus; pentagram; torch, &c.
|Head of Hermes in wide petasos.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 81.]
|ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Hermes (?) seated on throne,
holds apparently purse and caduceus.
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Forepart of Goat. |
|Head of Poseidon.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 81.]
|ΑΙΝΙΩΝ Hermes standing between
goats, or beside altar, holds purse
and caduceus. |
Of the history of Aenus we know but little. During the Sicilian expedition (B.C. 415) it was one of the subject-allies of Athens, and it figures in the Athenian Quota-lists for 10-12 talents. After B.C. 350 it formed part of the Macedonian empire, and ceased to coin in its own name, at least in silver; but coins were struck there in the name of Lysimachus, though, perhaps, not until after the death of that monarch.
Some of the full-face heads of Hermes on the coins of this town are very fine as works of art. With regard to the curious terminal figure of Hermes standing on a throne, Leake has justly remarked that it exactly resembles the description which Pausanias has given of the statues of Apollo standing on thrones at Amyclae and Thornax in Laconia (Paus., Lac., x. 12). There was doubtless a similar cultus-statue at Aenus.
Mesembria. This place, which was evidently not of much impor- tance, as it is mentioned only by Herod. (vii. 108) as a walled stronghold, τειχος, of the Samothracians, on the Thracian coast near the mouth of the river Lissus, is to be distinguished from the better known city of the same name on the Euxine (p. 278). The only coin which has, with much probability, been assigned to this Mesembria is a large bronze piece of the first century B.C.
|Head of Dionysos copied from late coins
of Maroneia or Thasos.
[Rev. Num., 1900, 258.]
ΒΡΙΑΝΩΝ Bunch of grapes.
Maroneia was an ancient city situate on the coast about midway between the mouths of the Hebrus and the Nestus. It was named after Maron, son of Euanthes, a priest of Apollo, who in the Odyssey gives Odysseus the wine with which he afterwards intoxicates Polyphemos. Maron is also called a son of Dionysos. The coins of Maroneia prove that Apollo and Dionysos were both objects of especial worship there. The earliest coins of Maroneia seem to belong to the ancient Thraco- Macedonian or Babylonic standard.
|Forepart of prancing horse.
[Berl. Cat., I. 175.]
|Incuse square diagonally divided.
AR Stater, 148 grs.
|Inc. sq. quartered. |
AR Diobols, 27 grs.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 123 sq.]
|Inc. sq. of ‘mill-sail’ pattern.
AR. Obols, 14.5 grs.
|Inscr., ΜΑΡ, ΜΑΡΩ, ΜΑΡΩΝΟΣ.
Forepart of prancing horse; two
large pellets, sometimes, in field.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 123 sq.]
|Incuse square containing a sun-flower
or a ram’s head, or simply quartered.
Sometimes with abbreviated magis-
AR Drachms, 57 grs., and ½ Drachms.
For specimen with Μαρωνος (genitive, Steph. Byz.) see Hunter Cat., Pl. XXV. 18. Perhaps Χαρακτηρ may be understood, the reference being to the type.
|Similar.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ (sometimes retrogr.)
written round a quadripartite linear
square. The whole in shallow incuse
AR Didr., 112 grs.
Phoenician wt., Tetradrachms 220 grs. (max.); Didr. 112 grs.; Drachms 50 grs. Inscr., ΜΑΡΩΝ, ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ, ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ, or ΜΑΡΩ- ΝΕΙΤΕΩΝ.
|Horse prancing (rarely standing). Symbols, sometimes : kantharos; star; wheel; wreath; lyre; helmeted head; helmet; head of Dionysos (?) facing; head of a Satyr; crescent; owl flying; &c. (Fig. 156).||Incuse square, within which vine with
bunches of grapes in linear square:
around, magistrate’s name, occasion-
ally in nom. case, but as a rule in
the genitive preceded by ΕΠΙ.
Magistrates: ΒΡΑΒΕΩΣ, ΔΕΟΝΥΣ, ΗΓΗΣΙΛΕΩΣ, ΜΗΤΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ or ΜΗΤΡΟΔΟΤΟ, ΜΗΤΡΟΦΩΝ, ΠΟΣΙΔΗΙΟ, ΠΥΘΟΔΩΡΟ, &c. On some specimens the inscription ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ stands on the reverse in place of the magistrate’s name.
|Forepart of prancing horse.
[Z. f. N., iii. 274.]
|Incuse square quartered; around, ma-
gistrate’s name ΕΠ ΑΡΧΕΜΒΡΟΤΟ.
|Id.||Incuse square, in which, vine; around,
magistrate’s name ΠΟΣΕΙΔΙΠΠΟΣ.
|Id.||Incuse square, in which, grapes. |
The following exceptional coins of light Attic or Rhodian wt. must also be placed shortly before B.C. 400 :—
|Head of young Dionysos bound with ivy.
[N. C., 1888, Pl. I. 11, B. M.]
|ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ Linear square, within
which, one large bunch of grapes with
branch and leaves. Symbol, outside
AR Tetradr., 249.5 grs.
|Head of young Dionysos bound with ivy.
[Z. f. N., iii. Pl. VI. 18.]
|ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ ΕΠΙ ΜΗΤΡΟ-
ΦΑΝΕΟΣ Vine growing out of the
head of a Seilenos (Maron ?) to front.
AR Tetradr., 255 grs.
About the end of the fifth century the Phoenician and Rhodian (?) standards were replaced by the Persic, of which the staters weigh about 175 grs. The standard of the gold coins is the Euboïc.
|Head of bearded Dionysos.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ Vine. |
AV 62 grs.
|Prancing horse; above, symbol, grapes.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ Vine. |
AV 48.5 grs.
|Prancing horse. Symbols on some spe- cimens. Inscr. sometimes ΜΑΡΩ (Fig. 157).||Vine in square. Symbols on some
specimens,— caduceus; scorpion; bee;
ear of corn; dog. |
AR Staters 175 grs.
Magistrate names on reverse, preceded by ΕΠΙ:— ΑΠΕΛΛΕΩ, ΕΥΞΙΘΕ- ΜΙΟΣ, ΕΥΠΟΛΙΟΣ, ΖΗΝΩΝΟΣ, ΗΓΗΣΑΓΟΡΕΩ, ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΟΥ, ΙΚΕΣΙΟ, ΚΑΛΛΙΚΡΑΤΕΟΣ, ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟ, ΜΗΤΡΩΝΟΣ, ΝΕΟΜΗΝΙΟΥ, ΠΑΤ- ΡΟΚΛΕΟΣ, ΠΟΛΥΑΡΗΤΟΥ, ΠΟΛΥΝΙΚΟΥ, ΠΟΣΙΔΕΙΟΥ, ΧΟΡΗΓΟ, &c.
There are also Triobols or ¼ Staters (wt. 44 grs.), and Trihemiobols (wt. 22 grs.). Inscr., ΜΑ, usually on the reverse, and magistrates’ names generally abbreviated:— ΑΘΗΝΕΩ, ΑΡΙΣΤΟΛΕΩ, ΖΗΝΩΝΟΣ, ΗΡΑ- ΚΛΕΙΔΕΩ, ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟ, ΝΟΥΜΗΝΙΟΥ, &c.
|Forepart of horse.||Bunch of grapes on vine-branch, in dotted and incuse square.|
|Forepart of horse in plain circle.||ΜΑΡΩΝ Tripod in inc. sq.
|Horse prancing.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ round linear square
within which, vine. Monogram on
both sides. |
|Head of young Dionysos, ivy-crowned.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ Grapes, in dotted sq.
ΕΠΙ ΠΥΘΟΝΙΚΟ. |
On the coins of Maroneia the signification of the horse is doubtful, but it appears to be the παρασημον of the city. The vine is a symbol of Dionysos or Maron, and recalls the famous wine of Maroneia, which was said to be capable of mixture with twenty times its quantity of water.
The autonomous coinage of Maroneia ceased when it fell under the dominion of Philip of Macedon, but the town appears to have remained a place of mintage under Philip, Alexander, Philip Aridaeus, Lysimachus, &c. Not until the second century B.C., when the Romans were supreme in Greece, did Maroneia regain its autonomy (Polyb. xxx. 3). The exact date of the commencement of the new series of tetradrachms is doubtful, but it is presumable that neither Maroneia nor Thasos began to coin again until after the closing of the Macedonian mints for silver in
Both in style and in fabric these large flat tetradrachms belong to the last stage of the decline of art on coins. They may be compared with the contemporary dated tetradrachms of Alexandria Troas.
|Head of young Dionysos (Fig. 158).||ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΑΡΩΝΙ-
ΤΩΝ Dionysos standing, holding
grapes and two narthex wands. In
field, two monograms of magistrates.
AR Attic tetradrachms; light wt. 255-230 grs.
|Head of young Dionysos.||Similar, with one monogr. |
|Head of Apollo.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ Asklepios standing.
|Head of bearded Herakles.|| „ Horse galloping. |
Imperial and Quasi-autonomous, Nero to Volusian (see Mion.; B. M. C. Thrace; Berl. Cat., I, &c.). Inscr., ΜΑΡΩΝΕΙΤΩΝ. Chief types ΔΙΟΝΥCΟΥ, Bust of Dionysos, rev. Kantharos; Temple of Dionysos.
Phytia (?). This town is only known from a single coin. It was probably in the neighbourhood of Maroneia.
|Bearded head of Dionysos (?) in close- fitting crested helmet with bull’s ear at side.||ΦΥΤΑΙΟΝ retrogr. round inc. sq.,
within which, vine.
(Baron de Hirsch, Ann. de Num.,
1884, Pl. I. 9). |
AR 29.5 grs.
Dicaea was an ancient seaport not far from Abdera, with which it appears to have been in close commercial relations. See Num. Chron., N. S., xv. 99.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion- skin, of very archaic style. [Z. f. N., xvii. Pl. I. 1; N. C., 1890, Pl. I. 1; B. M. C., Thrace, p. 115.]||Incuse square quadrilaterally or di-
AR Tetradrachm, 296 grs.
AR Stater, 148.2 grs.
AR Diobol, 27.6 grs.
These coins follow the ancient Thraco-Macedonian or Babylonic standard. Tetradrachms of this standard seem to be unknown elsewhere.
Dicaea appears to have changed its weight standard and adopted that of Abdera when the latter city began to strike money.
|Similar [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 115.]||ΔΙΚ Bull’s head and neck l., in incuse
AR Stater, wt. 111.6 grs.
|„||ΔΙΚΑΙ Id. [Z. f. N., xvii. 3.].
AR Stater, wt. 108 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion's scalp as above.||Cock in inc. sq. [B. M. C., Thrace,
p. 170.]. |
AR 57 grs.
|Δ Id. [N. C., 1896, Pl. I. 14.]||Id. |
AR 27 grs.
|No letter. Id. [Ibid., Pl. I. 15.]||Id. |
AR 31.4 grs.
|Female head, hair rolled.
[B. M. C., Thrace. 115.]
|ΔΙΚΑΙΑ Bull’s head and neck r., the
whole in incuse square.
AR Dr., 40 grs.
|Id. [Berl. Cat., p. 166.]||ΔΙΚ Id. |
AR ½ Dr., 18 grs.
|Id. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 233.]||Δ Bull’s head with neck, the head to
front, in inc. sq. |
AR 10.2 grs.
This town is mentioned in the Athenian Quota-lists (Corp. Inscr. Att., ed. Kirchhoff, vol. i. p. III) as a member of the Athenian Confederation between B.C. 454 and 428. It is there called Δικαια παρ Αβδηρα, to distinguish it from the other Dicaea, the colony of Eretria in Chalcidice (p. 213). Compare also coins attributed to Selymbria (p. 271).
Abdera, on the southern coast of Thrace, not far from the mouth of the river Nestus, was originally a Clazomenian colony founded in the seventh century B.C. This first venture did not prove a success, but in B.C. 544 the site was reoccupied by the larger portion of the population of Teos, who preferred to leave their native land rather than submit to the Persian conqueror (Herod. i. 168). Abdera now rose to be a place of considerable importance and wealth, on which account it was selected by Xerxes as one of his resting places in his progress along the northern shores of the Aegean. This is the period to which its earliest coins belong.
The silver money of Abdera may be divided into the following classes:—
Phoenician (?) standard : wt. of Octadrachm circ. 460 grs., and of Tetradrachm circ. 230 grs.
|Griffin seated, usually with rounded wing, plain or feathered, with one paw raised. Various adjunct symbols.||Shallow incuse square divided into four quarters.|
No name of town. Magistrates on obv.: Δ, ΕΚΑΤ, <Ι, ΠΕΡΙ, Σ, [Α]ΡΧ (?), Α, on Octadrachms;— ΑΝΤ, ΑΡΤΕ, ΑΣΠΑ, ΔΑΜ, ΔΕΟ, ΗΓΗ, ΗΡΑΚ, ΗΡΟ, ΜΕΓΑ, ΜΕΙΔΙ, ΠΡΩ, ΣΜΟΡ, ΤΕΛΕ, ΦΙΤΤΑΛΟ, ΣΥΜ, ΕΠΙ ΙΑ, on Tetradrachms (Fig. 159); and ΑΝΤ, ΔΕΟ, ΗΡΟ, ΗΓΗ, on Drachms. The obols (circ. 9-10 grs.) are uninscribed.
The griffin as a coin-type at Abdera is clearly copied from that on the coins of the mother-city Teos. It may be borrowed from the cultus of the Hyperborean Apollo. The magistrates whose names occur from the very earliest times on the coins of this town were probably members of the governing body, commissioned to superintend the coinage of the state, and not mere monetary magistrates. The accessory symbols in the field may be the signets, either of the magistrate or of the mint-master. Among those which we meet with on the coins of the earliest period are the following:— locust; calf’s head; dancing satyr, kylix; young male head.
The adoption of the Phoenician (?) standard in these northern parts is perhaps owing to the existence in early times on the site of Abdera of a Phoenician trading station or factory, for if the Teian colonists in B.C. 544 had not found another standard already established there, and used for silver in bullion form, it is to be presumed that they would have issued their coins uniform in weight as well as in type with those of Teos, which is not the case. The Octadrachms of Abdera,
|Griffin with curled wing, seated on fish. Magistrate, ΚΑΛΛΙΔΑΜΑΣ.||ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ in shallow incuse square. In centre, a smaller square quartered.|
|Similar griffin, sometimes with pointed wings, on one variety walking. Symbols: cock; owl; kantharos; scarabaeus with ball (Ateuchus sacer); amphora; phallus; small flying figure crowning griffin; beardless head; star, &c. Inscr. on some specimens, ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ.||In place of ethnic, Magistrates’ names, ΕΠ ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟ, ΕΠΙ ΔΕΟΝΥΔΟΣ, ΕΠ ΗΓΗΣΙΠΠΟ, ΕΠ ΙΠΠΩΝΟΣ, ΕΠΙ ΣΜΟΡΔΟΤΟΡΜΟ ΚΑΛ, ΕΠΙ ΦΙΤΤΑΛΟ, ΕΠΙ ΝΥΜΦΟΔΩΡΟ, ΕΠ ΕΡΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΔΕΩ, ΕΠΙ ΝΕ- ΣΤΙΟΣ, ΕΠΙ ΜΑΝΔΡΩΝΑΚΤΟΣ.|
|Griffin with pointed wings, usually rampant, but sometimes seated. Symbols (less frequent) : crayfish; ivy-leaf, &c.||Shallow incuse square with magistrate's name around, and in the centre, within linear sq., a type which changes with the magistrate.|
Varieties: ΕΠΙ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟ Lyre; ΕΠΙ ΜΟΛΠΑΔΟΣ Young male head; ΗΓΗΣΑΓΟΡΗΣ Young male head; ΜΕΛΑΝΙΠΠΟΣ Head of Athena; ΝΙΚΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ Warrior charging; ΠΟΛΥΑΡΗΤΟΣ Grapes; ΑΝΑΞΙΔΙΚΟΣ Hermes standing; ΗΡΟΦΑΝΗΣ Grapes in ivy-wreath; ΕΠΙ ΑΛΕΞΙΜΑΧΟ Kantharos; ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΣ Bearded Dionysos standing, holding kantharos and young pine tree [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. C. 2]; ΑΝΑΞΗΝΩΡ Similar; ΑΝΑΞΙΠΟΛΙΣ Bearded Dionysos; Id. Female head (Aphrodite?); ΑΡΤΕΜΩΝ Kantharos; ΠΟΛΥΚΡΑΤΗΣ Goat; ΕΚΑΤΑΟΣ Flying eagle.
Inscr. on obverse, ΑΒΔΗΡΙ or ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Griffin with wings pointed, or rounded and smooth, without indication of feathers. Reverse- types; Didrachms, ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΑΔΟΣ Herakles seated; ΕΠΙ ΖΗΝΩΝΟΣ Hermes standing (wt. 160 grs.); ΕΧΕΚΡΑΤΗΣ Head of Aphrodite; ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Prancing horseman; ΕΠΙ ΜΥΡΣΟ Discobolos; ΠΑΡΜΕΝΩΝ Bucranium; ΠΥΘΩΝ Tripod; ΕΥΑΓΩΝ Prize amphora; ΚΛΕΑΝΤΙΔΗΣ Rushing bull; ΕΠΙ ΜΟΛΠΑΓΟΡΕΩ Dancing girl. Drachm, ΕΠ ΟΡΧΑΜΟ Lion. Triobols, ΕΧΕΚΡΑΤΗΣ No type; ΚΛΕΑΝΤΙΔΗΣ Bull's head; ΑΝΑΞΙΔΙΚΟΣ Goat’s head; ΕΠ ΗΡΟΦΑΝΕΟΣ head of Hermes; ΜΟΛΠΑΓΟΡΗΣ Head of Bacchante; ΝΥΜΦΑΓΟΡΗΣ Dolphin; ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Head of Apollo(?); ΕΠΙ ΠΡΩΤΕΩ Three ears of corn; ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΑΙΟ Hermes standing; ΑΘΗΝΗΣ Stag. Trihemiobols, ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Bull’s head; ΚΛΕΑΝ Ram’s head, &c.
In B.C. 408 Abdera, then in a flourishing condition, was brought by the Athenian general Thrasybulus under the dominion of Athens. The following coins appear to be subsequent to that date:—
|ΑΒΔΗΡΙ Griffin with pointed wings, usually recumbent.||ΕΠΙ ΚΑΛΛΙΑΝΑΚΤΟΣ Incuse square, within which, Apollo with phiale and branch, standing beside stag.|
|Id.||ΠΟΛΥΚΡΑΤΗΣ Artemis with bow standing beside stag.|
|Id. [Berl. Cat., I. p. 105.]||ΕΠΙ ΤΗΛΕΜΑΧΟ Fighting Herakles.|
|Similar griffin, ΕΠΙ ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΩ||ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Head of Apollo laureate.|
|Id. ΕΠΙ ΙΚΕΣΙΟΥ||Id. (Fig. 160). |
|Griffin with pointed wings.||Id. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 72].
AR Triobols, wt. 44 grs.
Magistrates on Triobols, ΕΠΙ ΦΑΝΕΩ; ΕΠΙ ΑΡΧΕΛΑΟΥ. ΕΠΙ ΠΑΥ- ΣΑΝΙΩ, ΕΠΙ ΧΑΡΜΟ.
|Griffin on club.||ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Id.
AR Diobols, wt. 25 grs.
Magistrates on Diobols, ΗΡΑ, ΜΗΝΟ, &c. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 73.]
|ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Griffin recumbent, with pointed wings.||No incuse. Head of Apollo laureate. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 73.]|
Magistrates’ names on reverse, preceded by ΕΠΙ —ΔΙΟΝΥΣΑΔΟΣ, ΕΡΜΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΥ, ΕΥΡΗΣΙΠΠΟΥ, ΙΠΠΩΝΑΚΤΟΣ (Symbol, cockle- shell). ΠΥΘΟΔΩΡΟΥ (Symbol, kantharos), ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, ΔΙΟΦΑΝ- ΤΟΥ, ΟΜΗΡΟΥ, ΠΥΘΕΩ.
ΕΠΙ—ΑΝΑΞΙΠΟΛΙΟΥ, ΑΡΧΕΛΑΟΥ, ΔΙΟΝΥΣΑΔΟΣ, ΕΚΑΤΩΝΥ- ΜΟΥ, ΟΜΗΡΟΥ, ΠΟΛΥΦΑΝΤΟΥ, ΠΥΘΟΔΩΡΟΥ, ΠΥΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ, ΙΠΠΩΝΑΚΤΟΣ, ΕΥΡΗΣΙΠΠΟΥ, ΑΙΓΙΑΛΕΩΣ, &c., and ΠΡΩΤΗΣ in the nominative case without ΕΠΙ.
Although it is convenient to distinguish the weights of the coins of Abdera as Phoenician, Aeginetic, and Persic, it seems nevertheless very probable that the changes in weight were gradual rather than sudden.
|Griffin rampant.||Head of Apollo laureate, early fine style :
around ΕΠ ΟΡΧΑΜΟ, ΕΠΙ ΜΑΝ-
ΔΡΩΝΟΣ, or ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ.
|Griffin recumbent on club; magistrates, ΦΙ, ΕΡΜΟ, ΕΥΑΝ, ΜΕΝΑΝ, ΕΙ, &c.||ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Head of Apollo in
linear square. |
|Griffin seated.||ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΑΔΟΣ, ΕΠΙ ΠΑΡΜ....,
&c., in quadripartite square. |
|Id.||ΕΠΙ ΘΕΣ... Eagle on serpent. |
|ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΩΝ Griffin rampant.||Head of Apollo in linear square, ΕΠΙ
ΕΡΜΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΥ, &c. |
|Head of Hermes.||ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΑ Griffin seated. |
The above list of magistrates, extending over more than a century, is by no means complete, but the number of names recorded is sufficient to warrant the suggestion that they may be those of the annual Eponymi of the city. The almost constant presence of the preposition ΕΠΙ, and the prominent place occupied by the name, are arguments in favour of this hypothesis, as is also the fact that down to the end of the fifth century the reverse type seems to be subordinate to the magistrate's name, not only changing with it, but in some cases evidently suggested by it; e.g. ΝΙΚΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ, a warrior; ΠΥΘΩΝ, a tripod; ΕΥΑΓΩΝ, a prize amphora; ΜΟΛΠΑΓΟΡΗΣ, a dancing girl; and perhaps others. See Macdonald, Coin Types, p. 39.
Several of the magistrates may also be identical with famous citizens of Abdera, mentioned in history. Cf. von Sallet (Z. f. N., viii. 106), who points out that a Nymphodorus, circ. B.C. 430, held the supreme power at Abdera (Thuc. ii. 29). Democritus the philosopher was also an Abderite. He flourished circ. B.C. 440-357, and it is very possible that he may have occupied at one time the chief magistracy of his native town, as may also his brother Herodotus, for both these names occur on coins struck before B.C. 430.
Some of the coin-types of Abdera, notably the Herakles at rest, the dancing girl, the Discobolos, the Apollo, and the Artemis standing beside a stag, are among the most artistically instructive coin-types which have come down to us from any ancient city.
No autonomous coins were struck at Abdera after its absorption into the empire of Philip of Macedon.
Imperial. Claudius to Faustina. Inscr. often in nominative with emperors’ names in dat.: e.g. ΟΥΕCΠΑCΙΑΝΩ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΙ Head of Vespasian. Rev. ΑΒΔΗΡΕΙΤΑΙ ΤΙΤΩ ΚΑΙCΑΡΙ. The types offer no points of interest.
Trie[rus ?]. This town is known only from the following coins which have always been found on the northern coast of the Aegean. It was probably situate between Chalcidice and Maroneia (Imhoof, Num. Chron., 1873, p. 18).
|Forepart of horse.||ΤΡΙΗ in four quarters of incuse square.
AR 6.3 grs.
|Head of Apollo. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 181.]|| „ in the four corners of a square,
within which, laurel-branch. |
AR 7 grs.
Cypsela was a Thracian town on the Hebrus, about a day’s journey above the Greek city of Aenus. It seems to have been the chief town of the Thracian Odrysae and to have struck early in the fourth century B.C. the following small bronze coins in its own name.
|Head of Hermes in close-fitting petasos, as on coins of Aenus.||ΚΥΨΕ Two-handled vase (κυφελη).
A vessel of this shape is seen also on the coins of Hebryzelmis, B.C. 386-385, of Cotys, B.C. 382-359, and of Cersobleptes, B.C. 357-(?) 343, Kings of the Odrysae (see infra (P) and N. C., 1894, 3; also Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 530). The coins of these kings would seem therefore to have been struck at Cypsela.
The earliest inscribed coins of the Thracian Chersonese are Attic tetradrachms having on the rev. a head of Athena, evidently copied from archaic coins of Athens. Holm (Gr. Gesch., ii. 17) and Six (N. C., 1895, 185) assign these tetradrachms to the time during which Miltiades was tyrant of the Chersonese (circ. B.C. 515 or earlier, to B.C. 493). The Lion on the obv. with head reverted may have been adopted from early coins of Miletus. These coins were doubtless struck at the city of Cherronesus, perhaps the later Cardia or Lysimachia. The smaller uninscribed coins are conjecturally attributed to the Thracian Chersonese, partly from their resemblance to the inscribed tetradrachm and partly from their provenance, the Hebrus valley (Brandis, Münz-, Mass- u. Gewichtswesen, 524, and R. N., 1895, 103).
|Lion with fore-paw raised and head reverted. [Cat. Allier, Pl. IV. 5; Ann. de Num., 1884, Pl. I. 1; Berl. Cat., I. Pl. VI. 61; N. C., 1892, Pl. XV. 5; 1895, Pl. VII. 1, 2.]||Incuse square, in which, archaic head of
Athena wearing close-fitting helmet
with large crest; in front ΧΕΡ or no
AR Attic tetradr.
|Forepart of lion looking back. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 182.]||Quadripartite incuse square.
AR 45 and 22 grs.
|Forepart of lion with head reverted.
[B. M. C., Thrace, pp. 183 sqq.]
|Incuse square divided into four quarters;
in the two deeper ones, a symbol and
a letter or monogram.
AR Dr., wt. 40 grs.
If the letters, &c., on these coins stand for different towns the currency must have been of a federal character.
|Lion’s head, or female head facing.
[Ibid., p. 186.]
|Head of Athena. [Berl. Cat., I. 258.]||Id. |
Aegospotami. Although there is no mention of a town of this name in B.C. 405, when the Athenians were defeated by Lysander at the ‘Goat River’, yet there are small silver coins with the head of a goat, and with an incuse reverse of Chersonesian pattern (B. M. 12.5 grs.) which are certainly earlier than that time. The bronze coins are later in style than the age of Alexander, and are probably contemporary with the earliest autonomous issues of the neighbouring city of Sestus. In both towns Demeter seems to have been the chief divinity. (See Sestus, p. 261.)
|Head of Demeter wearing wreathed and ornamented kalathos.||ΑΙΓΟΣΠΟ or ΑΙΓΟΠΟ Goat standing.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 187]. |
This beautiful head is identified as that of Demeter by comparison with a coin of the neighbouring city of Sestus, on which the entire figure of the goddess is seen wearing the same head-dress and holding ears of corn.
Agathopolis. This town is first mentioned by the Byzantine historian Pachymeres (iii. 4) circ. A. D. 1260. H. P. Borrell (Num. Chron., iv. 2) suggests that it may have been named after Agathocles, son of Lysi- machus, but his arguments are not convincing.
|Young male head bound with taenia.||ΑΓΑ within a laurel wreath. |
AR Size .7
|Young male head hound with taenia.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 188.]
|ΑΓΑΘΟ Owl (sometimes double-
bodied); beneath, spear-head. |
|Similar head.||ΑΓ Caduceus. |
Alopeconnesus, on the western shore of the Chersonese, owed its origin and name, according to Steph. Byz., to the fact that the first settlers had been commanded by an oracle to found a city on the spot where they should first see the cubs of a fox (αλωπηξ).
|Head of young Dionysos, hair short.||ΑΛΩ or ΑΛΩΠΕΚΟΝ Kantharos. Symbols: fox and bunch of grapes, and sometimes corn-grain. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 188.] Æ .75-.55|
|Similar head, hair long.||Id. Symbol: club.|
|Head of Athena.||ΑΛΩΠΕΚΟΝ[ΝΗΣΙΩΝ] Id.|
Cardia, a colony of Miletus, was one of the chief cities of the Chersonese. It was destroyed by Lysimachus in B.C. 309. Its autonomous coinage in bronze falls chiefly into the latter half of the fourth century; but if, as some suppose, the silver coins of Chersonesus above described (p. 257) were struck at Cardia, there must have been a mint there before B.C. 500.
|Head of Demeter wearing corn-wreath, in profile or to front, copied from coins of Syracuse. [v. Fritze, Nomism. I. Taf. i. 1-4.]||ΚΑΡΔΙΑ, ΚΑΡΔΙΑΝΟΣ, or ΚΑΡ-
ΔΙΑΝΩΝ Lion breaking spear or
standing with head turned back as
on coins of Miletus. Symbols: corn-
grain, star, &c. |
|Lion or lion’s head.||Corn-grain in linear square. |
For other varieties see Berl. Cat., I. 246 sq.
Coela or Coelus, a port in the vicinity of Sestus. To this town Müller ascribes various coins of Philip II, Alexander, Philip Aridaeus, and Lysimachus, with the cornucopiae as a symbol, on the ground that this is the usual symbol on the money of Coela as a Roman Municipium. The attribution, however, cannot be accepted as sufficiently established.
The Imperial coins of the Roman municipium, Hadrian to Gallienus, read AI MVN COILA, AEL MVNICIP COEL, AEL MOVNICIP COE, &c. The most frequent reverse type is a Prow surmounted by a cornu- copiae; or the Genius of the city holding statuette of Tyche and cor- nucopiae; or the common Colonial type, Marsyas with wine-skin over his shoulder (B. M. C., Thrace, pp. 191 sqq.). Of exceptional interest is the rev. type of a coin of Commodus as Caesar:— Artemis in short chiton holding phiale and long torch, inscr. ΔIANAE ΔVFEN. AEL. MVNICIPII COELAN (Z. f. N., x. 148). The epithet Dauphena, as applied to Artemis, is elsewhere unknown. It is probably a Latin transliteration of δαοφανος or some such word (= torch-lighting ?).
Crithote was probably situated near the modern Gallipoli. The rev. type of the following coins is a type parlant (κριθη).
|Head of Demeter facing.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 194.]
|ΚΡΙΘΟΥΣΙΩΝ Grain of corn in corn-
|Head of Athena.||ΚΡΙ Corn-grain. |
|Medusa-like head facing.
[Berl. Cat., I. p. 263.]
|ΚΡΙΘΟ Corn-grain. |
Elaeus, the southernmost town of the Chersonesus, celebrated for its temple and tomb of the hero Protesilaos, who is represented on Imperial coins of Commodus, struck at Elaeus, as a warrior standing upon the prow of a ship (Berl. Cat., I. Pl. VII. 63, and Z. f. N., xiv. pp. 130 ff.).
|Prow.||ΕΛΑΙ in wreath. |
|Head of Athena.||ΕΛΑΙΟΥΣΙΩΝ Owl. |
|Bust of Artemis.||Bee. |
See also other varieties and Imperial of Commodus and Caracalla in Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 45 sq., and Gr. M., Pl. I. 1. On the rev. of the coin of Caracalla is Artemis standing to front; inscr. ΑΡΤЄΜΙC ЄΛΑΙΟΥCΙΝ (= ЄΛΑΙΟΥCΙΩΝ).
Lysimachia. This important city was built by Lysimachus in B.C. 309, near the site of Cardia, which he had destroyed. From its position near the narrowest part of the isthmus it became the key of the Chersonesus, and commanded also the passage of the Hellespont. Lysi- machus made it his residence and his principal European mint. After his death the town fell under the rule first of the Seleucidae and then of the Ptolemies, but it probably retained its right of coining in bronze.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.
[N. C., 1896, Pl. I. 16.]
|ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΕΩΝ Nike standing to
front, holding wreath and palm.
Attic octobol AR 82.2 grs.
The most frequent obverse types are—heads of Lysimachus, of young Herakles, of Demeter veiled, of the City turreted, of Athena, of a Lion, or of Hermes. Those of the reverse are-a Lion running, or seated in upright attitude, or the Forepart of a lion; a Trident; Artemis standing, holding long torch; Nike holding wreath and palm; Wreath of corn; Ear of corn, &c. Inscr. ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΕΩΝ (B. M. C., Thrace, p. 195 sq.).
Madytus, nearly opposite Abydus, was a town of some importance in the fourth century, to the middle of which its coins belong.
|Rushing bull; above, fish.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 197.]
|ΜΑΔΥ Dog seated. Symbols: ear of
corn or star; magistrate’s name.
|Female head, l.
[Z. f. N., xiii. Pl. IV. 2.]
|ΜΑΔΥ Lyre; in field, grapes.
The rushing bull and fish may symbolize the stream of the Hellespont; the dog is the Kynossema or tomb of Hecuba, which was in the terri- tory of Madytus, κυνος ταλαινης σημα, ναυτιλοις τεκμαρ (Eur. Hec. 1273).
Sestus, renowned in myth for the romantic tale of Hero and Leander, and in history for the crossing of the Persian hosts over the bridge which Xerxes caused to be constructed across the Hellespont, was always a place of considerable importance, but it did not begin to coin money until circ. B.C. 300. After an interval of about 150 years, during which some regal coins may have been struck there, it began once more to issue autonomous bronze coins about the middle of the second century B.C. Cf. an inscription from Sestus (Hermes, vii. 135), where it is recorded that a certain Menas was appointed to superintend the coinage of the town, του τε δημου προελομενου νομισματι χαλκινωι χρησθαι ιδιωι χαριν του νομειτευεσθαι τον της πολεος χαρκτηρα (H. v. Fritze, in Nomisma, I. p. 1, Berlin, 1907).
Obverse types:— Female head with hair in sphendone. Head of Demeter bound with corn. Term of Hermes. Head of Hermes, &c. Reverse types:— Demeter wearing kalathos, seated on corn-basket and holding ears of corn, in front a phallic term. Hermes standing. Amphora with long neck. Term, &c. Inscr., ΣΑ, later ΣΗ. (H. v. Fritze, op. cit., Pl. I. 5-12.)
Obverse types:— Female head as on earlier coins; Head of Demeter; Term of Hermes; Heads of Hermes, Athena, Apollo, Dionysos, &c. Reverse types:— Demeter seated with local epithet ΣΗΣΤΙΑ; Term; Lyre; Caduceus; Amphora; Tripod; Thyrsos; Cornucopiae, &c. Clearly the chief divinities of Sestus were Demeter ‘Sestia’ and Hermes. Inscr., ΣΗ or ΣΗΣ, sometimes with numerals Α-Ζ (= 1-7) in field (indicating successive issues ?).
Augustus to Philip Jun. Inscr. CΗCΤΙΩΝ, later, CΗCΤΙWΝ. Chief types. Bust of ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Lyre; Leander swimming, lighted on his way by Hero in her tower, and by Eros from above (Berl. Cat., I. p. 274); Apollo standing holding bird and long laurel branch.
Imbros. This island, whose inhabitants were Pelasgians, worshipped the Kabeiri, and Hermes as a god of reproduction in ithyphallic form (Herod. ii. 51), whence his Carian epithet, ‘Ιμβραμος, has been supposed to be derived (Steph. Byz. s. v. ‘Ιμβρος). The island was at an early period colonized by Athenians under Miltiades (?), and it was henceforth always regarded as subject to Athens. Bronze coins were struck in the island, intermittently, from the fourth century B.C. down to Imperial times. Their types are of a mixed Athenian and Pelasgic character. On the island of Imbros see E. Oberhummer (Festschrift für H. Kiepert, 1898, 278).
|Female head; sometimes of Demeter.||ΙΜΒΡΟΥ Naked ithyphallic figure of
Hermes Imbramos, standing before
a thymiaterion. |
|Head of Athena.||ΙΝΒΡΙ Caps of the Dioskuri or Kabeiri.
|Head of Athena.||ΙΜΒΡΟΥ Owl. |
About the time of the siege of Athens by Sulla in B.C. 87-86, it would seem that the Athenian kleruchs settled in Imbros issued bronze coins reading ΑΘΕΝΑΙΩΝ.
|Head of Athena.
[Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 49.]
|ΑΘΕΝΑΙΩΝ Hermes Imbramos,
standing before a thymiaterion.
|Head of Athena, copied from contem- porary coins of Athens.||ΙΝΒΡΙΩΝ or ΙΜΒΡΙΩΝ Types va-
rious :— Owl; Apollo in long chiton
standing with lyre and phiale (Kitha-
roedos); Artemis huntress; Female
figure holding double cornucopiae
|Locust or grasshopper.
[Berl. Cat., I. p. 278.]
|ΑΘΕ ΙΝΒΡΙ in wreath. |
The only coins with name and head of an emperor struck in Imbros belong to the time of Augustus :—
|ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ Head of Augustus [Im- hoof, Mon. gr., 50; Berl. Cat., I. 278.]||ΙΜΒΡΙ Caps of the Dioskuri or Kabeiri,
or Head of Apollo with lyre in front.
Lemnos, one of the largest islands of the Aegaean sea, lay, at a distance of about forty miles in each direction, midway between the promontory of Mt. Athos and the entrance to the Hellespont. From the time of the Persian wars down to the earlier half of the fourth century the island was subject to Athens and struck no coins. Its first autonomous issue can hardly be placed later than B.C. 350 as the rev. type is enclosed in an incuse square.
|Bearded head r. resembling in style the head of Zeus on early fourth-century coins of Elis, &c. [Berl. Cat., I. p. 279.]||ΛΗΜΝΙ Ram walking r. in incuse
The next Lemnian issues are apparently of a later period. They are autonomous bronze coins of the two cities Hephaestia and Myrina.
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.||ΗΦΑΙΣΤΙ or ΗΦΑ Ram. |
|Similar.||ΗΦΑΙ Owl facing; symbols : race-torch
and branch. |
|Head of king (Antiochus III ?), dia- demed.||ΗΦΑΙ Ram. |
|Similar.||ΗΦ Race-torch between caps of the
Dioskuri or Kabeiri. |
|Bearded head.||ΗΦΑΙ Two race-torches. |
|Head of Helios, radiate.|| „ Vine-branch and bunch of grapes
|Bust of Hephaestos.||ΗΦΑΙCΤΙΕΩΝ Race-torch. |
|ΗΦΑΙCΤΙΕΩΝ Bust of Hephaestos.||ΗΦΑΙCΤΙΕΩΝ or ΗΦΕCΤΙΕΩΝ
Athena Nikephoros standing. |
Æ 1.1[Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 529, Taf. I. 2.]
|ΛΗΜΝΟC Turreted and veiled female bust.||ΗΦΑΙCΤΙΕΩΝ Torch between hammer
and tongs of Hephaestos. |
Æ .85[Ibid., Taf. I. 3.]
For other varieties of the coins of Lemnos see Berl. Cat., I. 279 sqq., Imhoof, Gr. M., 529, and, with regard to the cult of the Kabeiri and Hephaestos, Z. f. N., xxiv. 117.
Myrina Lemni. Bronze, circ. B.C. 300.
|Head of Athena, often facing.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 214.]
|ΜΥΡΙ Owl, facing or r. |
For varieties see Berl. Cat., I. 283.
Samothrace. The seat of the famous mysteries of the Kabeiri. The coins of this island seem to be all subsequent to the death of Lysimachus.
|Head of Athena. [Z. f. N., xvi. 2.]||ΣΑΜΟ Kybele seated on throne; be-
neath which, lion. Magistrate's
AR Attic Tetradr. and Didr., also Æ .75
|Id.||ΣΑΜΟ Forepart of ram or ram’s head.
Symbol: caduceus. |
The ram is a symbol of the cult of the Pelasgic Hermes and of the Kabeiri (Z. f. N., xxiv. 118). For a list of some thirty different magistrates’ names on bronze coins of Samothrace, all apparently of the same period, see Journ. Int., 1898, 258, and Berl. Cat., I. 284.
|Bust of Hermes with caduceus over shoulder. [Hunter, I. Pl. XXVI. 7.]||ΣΑΜΟΘΡΑΚΩΝ ΣΕΙΡΩΝΟΣ ΤΡΙΩ-
ΒΟΛΟ, Ram. |
|Bust of Athena. [B. M. C., Thrace, 215.]||CΑΜΟΘΡΑΚΩΝ Kybele seated.
Thasos. The rich gold mines of this island had at a very early date attracted the Phoenicians to its shores. Later on it was colonized by Ionians from Paros. There was also a Thracian tribe called Saians or Sintians settled in the island. The Thasian possessions in the mining districts on the mainland were a source of enormous wealth, yielding, shortly before the Persian invasion, as much as from 200 to 300 talents annually (Herod. vi. 46). It was apparently from the mainland that the Thasians derived the so-called Babylonic standard of weight, as well as the types of their earliest money. The Satyr carrying off a struggling nymph is one of the class of types mentioned under Lete, supra, p. 197.
As, however, these coins are uninscribed or inscribed only with single letters, e.g. Α, Λ, Θ, Σ, &c., their attribution to the Thasians is not absolutely certain.
|Naked ithyphallic Satyr, with horse's hoofs but no tail, kneeling on one knee or running and carrying in his arms a struggling nymph clad in long chiton.||Quadripartite incuse square. (Fig. 161.)
AR Stater, 160-140 grs.
AR Drachm., 70 grs. (max.).
|Two Dolphins.||Id. |
AR Obol, 10 grs. (max.).
AR ½ Obol, 5 grs. (max.).
In this period of Athenian supremacy in Thasos the same types of the stater and drachm are in the main adhered to, but there is a steady decrease in the weight, which, on the later specimens, corresponds with the Attic or even falls below it. In style many of these later Thasian staters are admirable as works of art, and evidently by Greek, and not by Thracian, die-engravers. The rude struggle between satyr and nymph, as shown on the early coins, becomes, on these later specimens, a more polite form of abduction, the nymph being evidently not unwilling to be carried off (Fig. 162).
In B.C. 411 Thasos revolted from Athens and received a Lacedae- monian garrison, but was afterwards again dependent upon Athens. As at Acanthus and other towns on the mainland, an abrupt change of standard from Attic to so-called Rhodian took place at Thasos, in the last quarter of the fifth century. This, in the ease of the Thasian money, is accompanied by a change in the types. Gold coins in small quantities were also issued at this time. Cf. contemporary gold coins of Aenus and Maroneia.
|Head of Dionysos, bearded or young, ivy-crowned. [Berl. Cat., I. 287; N. C., 1880, Pl. I. 4.]||ΘΑΣΙΟΝ Bearded Herakles kneeling,
shooting with bow, in linear and inc.
sq. Cf. a Thasian relief [B. C. H.
1894, 67.]. |
AV 60 & 43 grs.
|Id. (bearded). (Fig. 163.)||ΘΑΣΙΟΝ Id. Various symbols in field.
AR Tetrad., 236 grs.
AR Didr., 109 grs.
AR Dr., 59 grs.
|Young male head crowned with reeds.
| „ Id. |
AR ½ Dr., 29 grs.[Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. C. 4.]
|Janiform head of bald Satyr.||ΘΑΣΙ Two amphorae placed in oppo-
site directions. |
AR ½ Dr.
|Satyr, with horse’s tail but human feet, kneeling, holding kantharos.||ΘΑΣΙΩΝ Amphora. |
AR ¼ Dr., 14 grs.
|Head of Satyr.||ΘΑΣΙ. |
Two dolphins AR 1/8 Dr., 7 grs.
|Head of Nymph.||ΘΑ Dolphin. |
AR 1/12 Dr., 4½ grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΘΑΣΙΟΝ Club, bow, and Bacchic
In this period there was also a separate issue of gold and bronze coins intended to circulate in the Thasian territory on the mainland. These coins read ΘΑΣΙΟΝ ΗΠΕΙΡΟ, and were probably struck at Cre- nides, afterwards called Philippi : obv. Head of young Herakles; rev. Tripod, or Club and bow (see p. 217, and Berl. Cat., II. 120).
During the time of Philip, Alexander, and Lysimachus there are no autonomous Thasian coins, but after B.C. 280 the mint of Thasos was again active for a few years.
|Head of bearded Dionysos, ivy-crowned, of late style.||ΘΑΣΙΩΝ Club in wreath.
AR Attic ½ Dr.
|Head of bearded Herakles.|| „ Club, bow, symbol, and mon.
|Head of young Herakles.||ΘΑΣΙΟΝ Id. |
|Head of Demeter veiled.|| „ Heads of the Kabeiri in
After the battle of Cynoscephalae, Thasos, which had formed part of the dominions of Philip V, regained its freedom, B.C. 196, but it is not
|Head of young Dionysos, of base style, wearing band across forehead, and ivy-wreath.||ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ
Herakles naked, standing with club
and lion-skin. (Fig. 164.)
AR Attic tetradr., 260 grs.
These coins were largely imitated by the barbarous Thracian tribes of the mainland. The inscriptions are usually blundered and illegible. There is, however, one variety on which ΘΡΑΚΩΝ is intentionally sub- stituted for ΘΑΣΙΩΝ in the exergue beneath Herakles. (Z. f. N., iii. 241.) The bronze coins of this late period are of various types, among which the following may be specified :—
|Bust of Artemis.||Herakles advancing, drawing bow.
Imperial. Hadrian, M. Aurelius, S. Severus, Caracalla and Geta; rev. ΘΑCΙWΝ Herakles with club and lion-skin.
Bisanthe was originally a Samian colony on the northern coast of the Propontis, a few miles west of Perinthus. The few autonomous coins struck at this town seem to have been issued shortly after the death of Lysimachus.
|Head of Demeter veiled.
[Berl. Cat., I. 138.]
|ΒΙΣΑΝΘΗΝΩΝ in corn-wreath. |
|Head of Athena.||ΒΙ or ΒΙΣΑΝ Owl. |
|Head of Apollo.||ΒΙΣΑΝΘΗΝΩΝ Tripod. |
Byzantium was originally a Megarian colony with an Argive element, to the influence of which latter the worship of Hera and the intro- duction of the myth of Io are perhaps to be ascribed. We gather from a passage in Aristophanes that at the end of the fifth century the
|Υ Cow standing on dolphin.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 93.]
|Incuse square, quartered, of ‘mill-sail’
AR Dr., 84 grs.
These coins correspond in weight with the Persian siglos, which was current in Asia Minor down to the age of Alexander. Like the sigli, the Byzantine coins are very frequently found covered with little counter- marks.
is the old Corinthian form of Β. On coins it is peculiar to the money of Byzantium.
After the battle of Cnidus, B.C. 394, several of the Greek cities in Asia which shook off the Spartan yoke, combined in a joint Symmachy, and issued each with its own reverse type, but with a common obverse type—the infant Herakles strangling the serpents,—silver coins equiva- lent to tridrachms of the Rhodian standard. The following specimen was struck at Byzantium on the re-establishment of democracy there circ. B.C. 389.
|Σ Υ Ν Infant Herakles strangling two serpents.||Υ Cow on dolphin. |
AR 174.2 grs.[Z. f. N., xxv. Taf. vii. 1.]
For the other specimens of this Federal coinage see Ephesus, Samos, Rhodes, Cnidus and Iasus.
About the middle of the fourth century the weight standard of the Byzantine silver coinage definitely changes from the Persic to the Rhodian. The types remain the same, but the frequent addition of symbols and monograms in the field indicates the period of Philip as that to which these coins of Rhodian weight should be ascribed. [Tetradrachm, 236 grs. (Fig. 165); Drachm, 59 grs.; Tetrobol, 38, Diobol, 19 grs.]
|Cow on dolphin.||Υ Trident. |
|Cow’s head.|| „ Three dolphins. |
Svoronos has suggested (Ephemeris, 1899; N. C., 1890, 332) that the obv. type may represent Io in cow-form crossing the Bosporus, symbolized by the Dolphin. From the time of the memorable siege of Byzantium by Philip of Macedon (340-339 B.C.) the autonomous coinage ceases until after the death of Lysimachus (c. 280 B.C.). Subsequently, for some years, Byzantium continued to suffer severely from the incursions of the Gauls, whom it was compelled to buy off by the payment of an enormous yearly tribute (Polyb. iv. 46). The state was completely drained of money, and in their straits the Byzantines appear to have been driven to make use of foreign coins, countermarking them with the letter . [Berl. Cat., I. p. 145, and B. M. C., Thrace, p. 110.]
To this period belong the following rare silver coins, of which the obverse type is identical with that which occurs on the money of Calchedon on the opposite shore of the Propontis, with which city Byzantium seems to have been for a time united in a monetary alliance.
|Head of veiled Demeter, wearing corn- wreath. (Fig. 166.)||Poseidon naked to waist, seated on rock,
holding trident and aplustre. In
field, and mon. Magistrates : ΕΠΙ
ΑΝΤΙΠΑΤ, ΕΠΙ ΕΚΑΤΟΔΩ, ΕΠΙ
ΜΑΤΡΙΚΩΝ[ΟΣ], ΕΠΙ ΜΕΝΙΚ,
ΕΠΙ ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΥ, ΕΠΙ ΟΛΥΜ-
ΠΙΟΔΩΡΟΥ, ΕΠΙ CΦΟΔΡΙΑ, &c.
AR Tetradr., 215 grs., and Attic Octobols, 80 grs.
|Head of Poseidon.||Prow which ΒΥ; behind, serpent.
Magistrate: ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΥ.
AR Attic octob., 88 grs.
|Head of Apollo.|| Tripod. ΕΠΙ ΔΑΜΩΝΑΚΤΟΣ,
ΕΠΙ ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΥ, &c. |
|Head of Poseidon.|| Trident : ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡ. |
|Head of Demeter.||ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙ Cornucopiae. ΕΠΙ ΕΚΑ-
ΤΟΔΩΡ, ΕΠΙ ΗΡΑΚ, ΕΠΙ
ΝΑΝΝΙ, ΕΠΙ ΦΑΝΙΩΝ. |
|Head of Apollo. [Cf. Hunter, I. 394, 8.]||ΒΥΖΑΝΤ Column: ΕΠΙ ΜΑΤΡΙ-
|Head of young Dionysos.
[Berl. Cat., I. p. 148.]
|ΒΥ[ΖΑΝ]ΤΙΩΝ Poseidon standing
holding small Nike; magistrates
name ΕΠΙ ΑΣΩΠΙΟΥ. |
|Head of Apollo.||ΒΥΖΑΝΤ/ΚΑΛΧΑ Tripod. |
|Head of veiled Demeter.||ΒΥΖΑΝ / ΚΑΛΧΑ Poseidon seated on rock.
|Head of Poseidon. [Hunter, Pl. XXVII. 3.]||Id. Prow. |
The column on the rev. of one of the above coins is supposed to be the obelisk of Apollo Karinos; see Drexler, in Z. f. N., xix. 128.
There are various other smaller denominations, on one of which the word ΔΡΑΧΜΑ (sc. χαλκου) occurs.
The approximate date of some of the coins of this series is fixed by the fact that the two names Hekatodorus and Olympiodorus on the tetra- drachms have been identified by Svoronos (Ephem., 1889) with those of the two chief magistrates of Byzantium mentioned by Polybius (iv. 47) as προσταται in B.C. 221. Whether these issues continued to be struck after the above date is uncertain. Byzantium now found herself sur- rounded by states in which coins of the Attic weight prevailed, and was therefore compelled to conform to the new monetary standard, as were also many of the Thracian and Ionian towns which seem to have adopted the types of the coins of Alexander or Lysimachus on account of the commercial prestige which attached to these regal coinages. The Byzantine issues are distinguished by the letters ΒΥ and a trident (Brit. Mus. Guide, Pls. 53 and 64). Many of these quasi-regal tetra- drachms, drachms, and gold staters are of very barbarous work, and are probably Thracian imitations.
The next series of Byzantine coins is of bronze, and belongs in style chiefly to Imperial times. The independence of Byzantium was long recognized by Rome. Among the coins most frequently met with are the following:—
|Head of Artemis with quiver at shoulder.||ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΩΝ Crescent and star.
|Head of young Dionysos.||Grapes. |
|Bust, horned, of Keroessa(?), daughter
of Io, and mother of Byaas.|
[N. C., 1890, 332.]
| „ Cow. |
|Head of Hermes.||Caduceus. |
|Monogram in wreath.||Two tall torches
pointed at both ends. |
It has been, perhaps too ingeniously, suggested by Svoronos that the cow or heifer on the reverse of the coin with the bust of Keroessa (?) may be the monument set up by Chares on the shore of the Bosporus in memory of the girl who accompanied him, as his hetaira, on his expedition in aid of Byzantium during the war with Philip of Macedon. Her pet name was Βοιδιον. For the pretty epitaph beneath this sculp- tured cow, see N. C., 1890. 332.
The crescent on the first of the above coins is the well-known symbol of Artemis as a Moon-goddess identified with Hekate, to whom, accord- ing to Hesychius, the Byzantines dedicated a statue in memory of the miraculous light which she once caused to shine in the heavens during
In Imperial times, M. Antonius to Gallienus, Byzantium struck money both with and without the Emperor’s head. Among the chief types the following may be mentioned:—
|ΒVΖΑΣ Helmeted head of Byzas (the reputed oekist), bearded.||Prow or entire galley, with magistrates’
names identical with those which
occur also on other coins with Em-
perors’ heads. |
|Head of young Dionysos.||ΕΠ ΦΡΟΝΤΩΝΟC ΒVΖΑΝΤΙΩΝ
Ostrich hunted by dog. |
Crested helmet with cheek-piece; Dolphin between two tunnies; Artemis Lampadephoros (φωσφορος) standing between two tall basket- torches; Artemis Tauropolos, or Selene, riding on bull; Basket-torch, &c.
On the names and titles of the Magistrates of Byzantium in Imperial times see Pick, in Num. Zeit., xxvii. 27 ff. The names of High-Priests, coupled sometimes with those of Priestesses, often occur, either without titles or preceded by ΕΠΙ and the titles ΑΡΧ(ιερεως), ΒΑC(ιλεως) or ΙΕΡΟΜΝΑ(μονος). A strange and unexplained custom also prevailed at Byzantium of frequently substituting for the name of the actual priest or priestess that of some divinity, deified Imperial personage, or deceased high official (honoris causa), e.g. ΕΠΙ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΟC ΤΟ Β; ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΝΥCΟΥ ΤΟ Γ; ΕΠΙ ΝΕΙΚΗC ΤΟ Δ; ΕΠΙ ΤΥΧΗC ΠΟΛΕΩC; ΕΠΙ ΘΕΑC ΦΑΥCΤΕΙΝΗC; ΕΠΙ ΜΕΜ ΜΑΡΚΟΥ ΗΡΩΟC ΤΟ Β; ΕΠΙ ΑΙ ΠΟΝΤΙΚΟΥ ΗΡ(ωος), &c. In addition to Pick (l. c.) see also Z. f. N., ix. 147, and cf. a similar custom at Lesbos (B. M. C., Troas, &c., lxx). Games. ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΙΑ CΕΒΑCΤΑ and ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΑ. Alliance coins with Nicaea.
Perinthus, an ancient Ionian colony from Samos, was situated between Bisanthe and Selymbria, on the northern shore of the Pro- pontis. Its earliest coins belong to the middle of the fourth century, and may have been struck shortly before the famous siege of the town by Philip of Macedon.
|Head of Zeus r., laur.
[Coll. Fenerly Bey.]
|ΠΕΡΙΝ Foreparts of two horses joined
back to back; beneath, ΚΙΣ and
AR Stater, 163 grs.
|Head of Kore in corn-wreath (Syra-
cusan type) : beneath, corn-grain.
[Sotheby Sale, 1904, lot 216.]
|Π Ε below the foreparts of two horses
joined back to back. |
AR 40 grs.
Æ Size .4
|Head of Kore (?) with long hair.
[Coll. Lischine, 1902, lot 674.]
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 147.]
|Heads of Zeus and Hera, jugate.
[Coll. Lischine, 1902, lot 681.]
ΘΙΩΝ Bull walking.
The coins which follow these are AV staters and AR tetradrachms of the Alexandrine and Lysimachian types, distinguished by the symbol of foreparts of horses. (See Müller, Num. d'Alex. and Münzen Lysim.)
At Perinthus, Herakles was revered as oekist or founder, and on coins of the time of the Empire his head is accompanied by the inscription ΠΕΡΙΝΘΙΩΝ ΙΩΝΩΝ ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙCΤΗΝ inclusion to the Ionian origin of the colony. The various labours of Herakles are, as might be expected, commonly represented on the large bronze coins of Perinthus in Imperial times. Among other remarkable types are the Samian Hera, ΗΡΑ ΠΕΡΙΝΘΙΩΝ, standing on a prow; the head-dress of Isis, and other Egyptian types—e. g. Harpokrates, Anubis, the Bull Apis, &c.; also Zeus seated, in the sky above him Helios and Selene in their chariots, and, recumbent beneath him, Ge and Thalassa,—the whole within the circle of the Zodiac. There are numerous other types of considerable interest, e.g. ΕΠΙΔΗΜΙΛΒCΕΥΗΡΟΥ Galley in full sail with Emperor standing in the prow; Dionysos standing over sleeping Ariadne (N. Z., 1884, Pl. IV. 5). Perinthus received the title Neokoros for the first time under Severus and for the second time under Elagabalus.
Games. CЄΥΗΡЄΙΑ ΠΡΩΤΑ, ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦЄΙΑ, ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦЄΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, ΑΚΤΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, and, according to Eckhel, ΗΡΑΚΛЄΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ.
Magistrates. Under Hadrian and the Antonines the coins sometimes bear the names of the Roman Legatus and Propraetor, e. g. επι Μαικιον Νεπωτος πρεσβευτον Σεβαστον και αντιστρατηγον (Imhoof, Mon. gr., 43), or simply ΗΓЄ[μονευοντος] = Lat. Praeses.
Alliance Coins with Ephesus, Smyrna, and Laodiceia.
Selymbria or Salybria was an ancient city situate about twenty-two miles east of Perinthus. It struck silver money, at first on the Persic and later on the Attic standard.
|ΣΑ Cock. [B. M. C., Thrace, p. 170.]||Quadripartite incuse square. |
AR 76.4 grs.
and small divisions, 8.6-5. grs.
|Cock. [Berl. Cat., I. 232.]||ΣΑΛΥ Ear of corn. |
AR 67 grs.
This town is several times mentioned in the Athenian Quota Lists. There are no Selymbrian coins after the middle of the fifth century. For other coins sometimes attributed to this town see Dicaea near Abdera (p. 252).
Odrysae. It is not likely that the coins of the Odrysae, a powerful and warlike people, were struck in any organized civic community. They were doubtless issued at the strongholds of their chiefs or kings. The following, however, bear no personal names:—
|Head of Athena facing in three-crested
helmet. (Cf. coins of Audoleon.)|
[N. C., 1892, Pl. XVI. 4.]
|ΟΔΡ ΣΙ Bearded figure seated with
kausia behind neck; he holds sceptre
and upright uncertain object.
AR 15.4 grs.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.
[Berl. Cat., I. 197.]
|ΟΡΟΣΙ..? Bull standing on club.
See also Thracian kings of the Odrysae (pp. 282 sqq.).
Olbia, near the mouths of the rivers Hypanis and Borysthenes, was a Milesian colony which rose to great prosperity in consequence of its trade, on the one hand, with the Scythian tribes of the interior and, on the other, with all the coasts of the Euxine. It struck money in con- siderable quantities both in silver and bronze from the third to the first centuries B.C. There are also specimens in gold (Pick, Ant. Münz. N.-Gr., I. Pl. IX. 1, 18). The principal varieties are: Head of Demeter; rev., ΟΛΒΙΟ, a sea-eagle flying with a dolphin in its claws, copied from coins of Sinope and Istrus. Head of the River-god Borysthenes, bearded and horned, rev. a Bow in its case and a battle-axe. For numerous other varieties the student must be referred to Burachkov (Cat. of Coins of Greek Colonies, Odessa, 1884, Plates I-X) and Pick (op. cit.). There are also large and small cast bronze pieces of Olbia (aes grave) with a head of Athena, of a goddess with flowing hair to front, with an ear of corn above her forehead, or a Gorgoneion, on the obverse; and either a Wheel or a Sea-eagle with a dolphin on the reverse. There are in addition some curious bronze pieces, made in the shape of a dolphin. The inscriptions on the above coins are sometimes ΟΛ, ΟΛΒΙ, ΟΛΒΙΗ, &c.; but the name of the town is often replaced by personal names such as ΑΡΙΧΟ, ΠΑΥΣ, ΚΡΙΤΟΒΟΥ, ΘV, &c. The fanciful theory first advanced by von Sallet (Z. f. N., x. 144) with regard to ΘV and ΑΡΙΧΟ must be abandoned now that other personal names have been published. Why Olbia issued these cast bronze pieces, which are apparently con- temporary with the ordinary coinage, has not been satisfactorily accounted for, The Gorgoneion seems to be copied from the silver coins of Parium, the head of Athena (Burachkov, Pl. II. 9, 10) from coins of Athens, the facing head with flowing hair perhaps from coins of Pharnabazus or Datames (cf. B. M. C., Cilic., Pl. XXIX).
From the weights of the few silver coins of Olbia which are well pre- served it would appear that the Aeginetic standard or a reduced form of the Phoenician standard was in use in the third century B.C. For coins of various Scythian dynasts or kings struck at the Olbian mint, and for the gold staters reading ΚΟΣΩΝ, possibly struck at Olbia, see infra, p. 289.
On the cults of Olbia see G. M. Hirst in J. H. S., xxii and xxiii. Olbia was destroyed by the Getae about the middle of the first century B.C., but was subsequently rebuilt. The later coins usually read ΟΛΒΙΟΠΟΛΙΤЄΩΝ or ΟΛΒΙΟΠΟΛΙΤWΝ.
For imperial coins, Augustus to Mamaea, see Koehne (Mus. Ko- tschoubey), Burachkov (op. cit.), Berl. Cat., I, &c. Regarding marks of value see Imhoof, Gr. M., p. I 63.
See also infra, p. 289, Kings of the Scythians, &c., for Olbian coins with names of Dynasts upon them, Coson, Scilurus, Pharzoius, &c.
Tyra was a Milesian colony on the river Tyras (Dniester), about twenty miles from its mouth. The earliest autonomous coins seem to belong to the second or first century B.C. (Pick, Ant. Münz. N.-Gr., I. Pl. XII).
|Bust of Demeter veiled, facing.||ΤΥΡΑΝΟΝ Rushing bull. |
AR 86 grs.
|Head of Apollo (?).||ΤΥΡΑ or ΤΥΡΑΝΟΝ Horse’s head.
Æ Size .9-.6
|Id.||ΤΥΡΑ Bull walking. |
|Head of Demeter to front.||ΤΥΡΑ Cista mystica. |
The smaller autonomous bronze coins bear heads of Demeter, Poseidon(?), Dionysos, Apollo, Hermes, and Asklepios. Reverses, Kalathos, Lyre, Caduceus, Serpent coiled on altar or round omphalos, Thyrsos, Cornu- copiae, Fish, &c.
Coins were also struck at Tyra in the name of Lysimachus, and there are Imperial coins from Domitian to Julia Mamaea. Inscr., ΤΥΡΑΝΩΝ (Berl. Blätt., vi. 27, and L. Bruun, Z. f. N., xvi. 182).
For types see Pick (op. cit.).
Dacia. Of the Roman Province of Dacia there are no coins with Greek inscriptions. For the coin of Trajan with ΔΑΚΙΑ described by Vaillant (Num. Gr., p. 27), see Hunter II, Pl. XL. 7. It was struck not in Dacia but in Crete. The Provincial coins reading PROVINCIA DACIA were issued during eleven years only from Philip Sen. to Gallienus, A. D. 246-257. They are dated AN. I-AN. XI. The usual type is Dacia standing holding in her hands the standards of Legions V and XIII with their respective ensigns, an eagle and a lion, beneath. (Pick, Ant. Münz. N.-Gr., I. Pl. I. 1-7.)
Viminacium, Moesia Superior. Provincial coins from Gordian III to Gallienus. Inscr., P. M. S. COL. VIM (Provincia Moesia Superior Colonia Viminacium), with dates AN. I-AN. XVI., ranging from A.D. 239-257.
The chief type of the coins of Viminacium is the Province Moesia standing between the standards or the ensigns, a Bull and a Lion, of Legions VII and IV, which were quartered in the Province. For varieties see Pick (op. cit.).
Callatis, Moesia Inferior, was a colony of Heracleia Pontica, about twenty-five miles south of Tomis. Autonomous silver of Attic weight; Octobols, Tetrobols, and Triobols.
|Head of Herakles in lion-skin.
[Pick., N.-Gr., Pl. I. 17.]
|ΚΑΛΛΑΤΙ Bow in case, club, and ear
of corn. |
AR 88, 44, and 30 grs.
Also gold staters and tetradrachms, copied from the money of Alexander and Lysimachus (or countermarked), which circulated for more than a century and a half in these regions. The portraits on some of the gold staters seem to be of the time of Mithradates. The symbol of Callatis on coins of regal types is an ear of corn.
Autonomous bronze coins are likewise known with the heads of Herakles or Athena (reverse-types as above); of young Dionysos, rev. Ivy-wreath or Panther with thyrsos; of Apollo, rev. Tripod; of veiled Demeter, rev. Corn-wreath, &c. Magistrates’ names, occasionally, in nom. case or in monogram. Callatis was taken by Lucullus in B.C. 72, when its autonomous coinage comes to an end.
The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage of Callatis ranges from Faustina Jun. to Philip Jun. Inscr., ΚΑΛΛΑΤΙΑΝΩΝ. Types. Heads of Herakles as ΚΤΙCΤΗC, Demeter, Athena. Reverses. Labours of Herakles; Dioskuri; Kybele on lion; Eros on lion; City-goddess seated; City gateway, &c. From Sept. Severus to Philip the coins usually bear marks of value, Ε, Δ, Γ, Β (= 5-2 Assaria). See Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 163.
Dionysopolis. Autonomous bronze after circ. B.C. 200. Head of young Dionysos, rev. ΔΙΟΝΥ or ΔΙΟΝΥCΟΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Club between two stars in ivy-wreath; Vine-wreath; Head of veiled Demeter, rev. Corn- wreath. After the Roman conquest (B.C. 72) the coinage ceases until the age of the Antonines.
Imperial. Ant. Pius to Gordian. Marks of value from Commodus onwards, Ε, Δ, Γ, Β (=5-2 Assaria). Inscr., ΔΙΟΝΥCΟΠΟΛ(Є)ΙΤΩΝ. Chief types, Dionysos, sometimes in his temple; the Great God of Odessus (Θεος Μεγας) with phiale and cornucopiae; Sarapis; Herakles; Demeter; and others of no special interest.
Istrus, a colony of Miletus, south of the river Istrus, appears from its plentiful silver coinage to have been, from the fourth century B.C., a place of commercial importance. The weight standard of the silver money is the same as at Sinope. Staters (or drachms ?) of Phoenician wt. 108 grs. max. and smaller coins of 22 grs.
|Two heads united, in opposite direc-
tions, upwards and downwards.
[B. M. C., Thrace, &c., p. 25.]
|ΙΣΤΡΙΗ Sea-eagle on dolphin.
AR 108 grs., max.
AR 22 grs.
This remarkable type has usually been explained as a representation of the Dioskuri, whose cult was prevalent on the coasts of the Euxine, but as there is no trace of their special worship at Istrus, either on later coins or in inscriptions, I would suggest that the inverted heads may be meant for the rising and the setting sun-god. The worship of Apollo as Helios may well have been derived from the mother-city, Miletus, and the commerce of Istrus in two opposite directions, east and west, may have suggested this fanciful device. The two heads bear a close resem- blance to those of the rayless Helios on the early coins of Rhodes, with which they are contemporary.
The sea-eagle seizing a dolphin is a type which occurs at Sinope, with
The autonomous bronze coins of Istrus of the third and second century B.C. have on the reverses ΙΣΤΡΙΗ Eagle on dolphin, and on the obverses, various types, e. g. head of Apollo as on coins of Philip II; head of Helios radiate; head of bearded River-god Istros facing; head of Demeter veiled; Apollo seated on omphalos, holding arrow and bow. These last bear the magistrate’s name ΑΡΙΣΤΑ(γορας), who is doubtless identical with the Aristagoras honoured in an Istrian inscription of the second century. See Pick (N.-Gr., p. 152).
In the first century B.C. Istrus struck quasi-regal gold staters reading ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ, the portraits on which resemble those of Ariarathes, son of Mithradates VI (Pick, op. cit., Pl. II. 27).
Imperial coins. Ant. Pius to Gordian. Inscr., ΙCΤΡΙΗΝΩΝ. Chief types, Rider-god (Mithras (?) ) wearing modius, before his horse an altar (?) and behind a long torch or column(?) on the top of which, a bird; Kybele seated; Nemesis; Apollo with lyre on column; Hera standing; Athena standing before tree and serpent; River-god ΙCΤΡΟC; Eagle on dolphin, &c. Marks of value from Commodus onwards Ε, Δ, Γ, Β (= 5-2 Assaria).
Marcianopolis. This city, a few miles inland, west of Odessus, was founded by Trajan and named after his sister Marciana. Its coinage, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, extends from Commodus to Philip Jun. Inscr., ΜΑΡΚΙΑΝΟΠΟΛΙC or ΜΑΡΚΙΑΝΟΠΟΛ(Ε)ΙΤΩΝ. From Severus onwards the coins usually bear the names of the Roman Legates preceded by V, VΠ, or VΠΑ, for υπατευοντος. Only in one instance do we meet with ΗΓ, for ηγεμονευοντος. Mark of value usually Ε (= 5 Assaria) after Severus. Types, numerous. Those which seem to be of local interest are various temples, and a triumphal arch surmounted by statues, also the many-towered wall of a city (see Pick, N.-Gr., Pl. VII).
Nicopolis ad Istrum. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial from Ant. Pius to Gordian III. Inscr., ΝΙΚΟΠΟΛ(Є)ΙΤΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΙCΤΡΟΝ or ΙCΤΡΩ under Ant. Pius, M. Aurelius Caesar, and Commodus, accompanied by the names of the Legates of the Province of Thrace (in which Nicopolis was at first included), preceded by ΗΓΕ or ΗΓΕΜΟ (for ηγεμονευοντος); and, after Severus, by those of the new province of Moesia Inferior preceded by V, VΠ, or VΠΑ (for υπατατευοντος). On some coins of Severus and his sons is also the inscr. ΕVΤVΧΩC ΤΟΙC ΚΥΡΙΟΙC, a Greek rendering of the ‘Vota’ on Roman coins (cf. coin of Pautalia infra, p. 287). Types, numerous, among which are Mount Haemus, ΑΙΜΟC, represented as a hunter seated on a rock, on which is a tree, and at its base a bear, and in addition, sometimes, a stag; and the River Istrus recumbent, usually with prow beside him.
For other types of local interest see Pick (op. cit.).
Tomis, a Milesian settlement between Istrus and Callatis, is memorable as the place of the exile of Ovid. From the time of Lysimachus down to the first century B.C. gold and silver coins in the name of Lysimachus were struck there.
The autonomous coins belong to the second and first centuries B.C.
|Head of Apollo.
[Congrés de Num., 1900, Pl. IV. 4.]
|ΤΟΜΙ Tripod and magistrate’s name
AR 47 grs.
|Head of Θεος Μεγας (cf. Odessus).||ΤΟΜΙ and magistrate’s name Eagle
in oak-wreath. |
|Heads of the Dioskuri.||ΤΟΜΙ Horses of the Dioskuri or their
|Head of Demeter veiled.||ΤΟΜΙ Ear of corn between stars of
the Dioskuri. |
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Caligula to Philip Jun. Inscr. ΤΟΜ(Є)ΙΤΩΝ or, after Aurelius, ΜΗΤΡΟΠ ΠΟΝΤΟΥ ΤΟΜΕΩC with marks of value ΑC, Β, Γ, Δ, and ΔC (= 1½-4½ Assaria). Chief types, Head of Tomos the founder with legend ΤΟΜΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC or ΤΟΜΟΥ ΗΡWΟC, Trophy between captives; The Dioskuri recumbent side by side, or standing beside their horses; City-goddess standing over swimming figure of Pontos Euxeinos with crab-shell head-covering. (Svoronos, Ephem., 1890, Pl. II. 13.) For numerous other types see Tacchella (R. N., 1893, 51 ff.), Pick (N.-Gr., Pls. V-VII), and Soutzo (Congrés de Num., 1900, Pl. IV).
Odessus. A colony of Miletus at the mouth of the river Panysus. Its earliest coins are gold staters and tetradrachms of Alexandrine or Lysimachian types, many of them with abbreviated magistrates’ names, among which the Thracian name ΚΥΡΣΑ.... occurs. This name is also found upon an autonomous tetradrachm of Odessus of the second century B.C. (cf. the analogous coins of Maroneia and Thasos).
|Bearded head of the ‘Great God’ of Odessus bound with taenia, hair falling in lank locks (Fig. 167).||ΘΕΟΥ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΟΔΗΣΙΤΩΝ
Bearded figure draped, standing,
holding phiale and cornucopiae;
beneath, ΚΥΡΣΑ. |
|Bearded head laur.
[Pick, Jahr. Arch. Inst., XIII. 161.]
|ΟΔΗΣΙΤΩΝ Rider-god holding cornu-
The head on these coins is probably that of the divinity represented on the reverse.
|Female head (or head of Apollo ?).||ΟΔΗΣΙΤΩΝ The Great God reclining,
holding cornucopiae and phiale; in
field, reversed amphora.
Also Imperial from Trajan to Salonina. Inscr., ΟΔΗCCΕΙΤΩΝ. Types— The ‘Great God’ of Odessus holding phiale and cornucopiae, and sometimes wearing kalathos; Hades; Asklepios; Nemesis; Demeter, &c. Games, ΔΑΡΖΑΛΕΙΑ (see Pick, Jahrb. Arch. Inst., XIII. 157). Mark of value Ε (= 5 Assaria).
Anchialus, between Mesembria and Apollonia, struck money only in Imperial times. Quasi-autonomous:—
|ΑΝΧΙΑΛΟC Young head of tradi- tional founder Anchialos.||ΑΝΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ Asklepios standing
|Bust of Sarapis.||ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ Isis Pharia. |
Imperial. Domitian to Gordian III. Inscr., ΟVΛΠΙΑC ΑΓΧΙΑΛΟV (Hunter Cat., p. 419), but usually ΟVΛΠΙΑΝΩΝ ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ. Only once with name of the Legate, preceded by ΗΓ(εμονευοντος). Chief types, Artemis Huntress; Apollo (or Orpheus ?) seated on rock playing lyre; Demeter before tall torch; Hermes seated; Coiled serpent; Kybele seated; Triptolemos; Herakles subduing Cretan bull; Hermes of Praxiteles carrying infant Dionysos; City gate; Zeus defending walls of Thebes against Kapaneus (Ephemeris Arch., 1889, Pl. II. 16); Three Nymphs holding vases. Games, CΕΒΗΡΙΑ ΝΥΜΦΙΑ.
Apollonia Pontica (Sozopolis) on the Euxine was another Milesian
colony. It possessed a famous temple of Apollo and a colossal statue of
the god by Kalamis which Lucullus, when he took the city, carried off
to Rome, B.C. 73 (Pick, Jahrb. Arch. Inst., XIII. 167).
|Anchor with crayfish as adjunct symbol.||Swastika in incuse of same form. |
AR Attic Dr., 63-58 grs., and fractions of the Obol, 6 and 3 grs.
|Id.||Gorgoneion in concave field. |
AR 58-50 grs.
|Id. with crayfish and Α.||Id. |
AR 50-44 grs.
|Id. with crayfish and ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 234.]||Id. |
AR 110 grs. (?)
|Head of Apollo laur., hair rolled.||Anchor with Α and crayfish in field, and magistrates’ names. |
Tetradr. AR 260-225 grs.
Diob. AR 21-19 grs.
|Head of Apollo laur., to front.||Id.
|Head of Apollo laur., hair rolled.||Id. around ΔΙΧΑΛΚΙΗ and Ε |
Æ .55 Wt., 33.5 grs.
|Apollo with himation over lower limbs, seated on omphalos and resting on bow.||Anchor with Α and crayfish; in field, magistrates’ names.
Æ size .65
|Apollo standing facing, holding long branch and bow.||Anchor with Α. |
Æ size .55
|Head of Apollo r. laur., to front. [Pick, Jahrb. Arch. Inst., XIII. Pl. 10. 29, but see infra Peparethus.]||ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ ΙΑΤΡΟΥ Apollo standing to
front, holding long branch and bow. |
The above-described coins, hitherto conjecturally attributed to various cities, Abydus, Astacus, or Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, have been at last identified by Tacchella (R. N., 1898, 210) as the coinage of the Pontic Apollonia (cf. Zeit. f. Num., xv. 38).
Imperial. Faustina Jun. and S. Severus. Inscr., ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΗΤЄΩΝ ЄΝ ΠΟΝΤΩ. Types, Flaming altar; Apollo seated on griffin; Temple of Apollo (?) (N. C., 1900, 280; R. N., 1900, 480; Hunter Cat., I. 421).
Cabyle (Jamboli) on the R. Tonzus, affluent of the Hebrus, some sixty miles inland, west of Apollonia Pontica, struck a few bronze coins in the second (?) century B.C.
|Head of Apollo. [R. N., 1900, 257, and Blanche’s Bull. Int., 1903, 61, for reverse legend.]||ΚΑΒΥ|
ΛΗΝΩΝ Artemis standing.
Mesembria. There were two places of this name in Thrace, one an important colony of Megara on the Euxine, the other mentioned only by Herodotus (vii. 108), who calls it a continental stronghold of the Samothracians. It is to the former that the coins with the name of Mesembria, with the probable exception of the specimen described above (p. 248), belong. They are of the Rhodian standard.
|Crested helmet facing.||Incuse square. |
AR Obol, 8 grs.
|Id.||ΜΕTΑ in the four quarters of a radiate
AR Tetradr. 239 grs. with magistrate’s name ΑΝΘΕΣΤΗΡΙΟΣ in the spaces between the spokes of the wheel. [Fenerly Bey Coll.].
AR Diobol, 19.4 grs., ½ Obol, 4.8 grs., and Æ Size .65-.5
|Head of Athena.||ΜΕΤΑ (? T) between the four spokes
of a wheel. |
|Head of Athena.|| in dotted circle. |
Æ .5[Berl. Cat., I. 189.]
The silver coins seem to be of the Rhodian standard. The reverse type has been interpreted as referring to solar worship, the radiate wheel being the midday sun (cf. the meaning of μεσημβρια). See Gardner in Num. Chron., N. S., 1880, p. 59. The use of the form T (= ΣΣ) is peculiar to the Ionian sea-board and to the Pontic coast of Thrace. It is discussed by Foat in J. H. S., XXV. 338 and XXVI. 286. (Cf. also Hogarth, Archaic Artemisia, 142.)
Alexandrine tetradrachms of large flat fabric (Müller, 487-9) and bronze coins.
|Helmet r. with cheek-piece.
[Berl. Cat., I. Pl. V. 51.]
|ΜΕTΑΜΒΡΙΑΝΩΝ Wheel. |
|Head of City veiled and turreted.||ΜΕΣΑ Ear of corn in wreath. |
|Diademed female head.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 132.]
|ΜΕTΑΜΒΡΙΑΝΩΝ Athena in fight-
ing attitude. |
The later coins read ΜΕΣΑΜΒΡΙΑΝΩΝ. There are also Imperial coins from Hadrian to Philip Junior. Types, Apollo holding plectrum and lyre placed on column; Sarapis; Kybele; Athena; Hygieia; &c.
Carcine, on the north coast of the gulf which was named after it, struck a few bronze coins, the obverse type of which resembles the silver coins of Amisus, &c. on the opposite coast of the Euxine.
|Head of City-goddess in turreted ste-
[Oreschnikow, Beiträge, Pl. I. 1.]
|ΚΑΡΚΙ Prancing horseman, and magis-
trate’s name abbreviated. |
Cercinitis, on the western coast of the Tauric Chersonesus (Friedländer, Annali dell’ Inst., 1844, p. 233), struck bronze coins probably during the third century B.C.
|ΚΕΡΚΙ Poseidon (?) seated on rock, holding sceptre surmounted by dol- phin or double axe ?||Horse trotting l. Magistrate’s name.
|ΚΕΡ Head of Artemis l., with quiver at shoulder.||Stag advancing l. Magistrate’s name
in field. |
Oreschnikow (Beiträge) would identify Cercinitis with Carcine, but see Imhoof, Kl. M., ii. 527.
Cherronesus (near the modern Sebastopol) was a colony of Heracleia Pontica. The types usually refer to the worship of Artemis Tauropolos, whose symbol as a moon-goddess is the bull. She often appears, however, on the coins as Artemis Agrotera or Elaphebolos.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.
[B. M. C., Thrace, &c., p. 1.]
|ΧΕΡ Artemis with bow and arrow,
seated. Magistrate’s name.
AR Didr., 142 grs.
|Id. [Ibid.]|| „ Rushing bull. |
AR Dr., 72 grs.
|Head of Artemis in turreted crown.|| „ Stag. |
AR Dr., 62 grs.
|ΧΕΡ Artemis spearing stag.
[B. M. C., Thrace, &c., p. 3.]
|Magistrate’s name. Rushing bull, torch,
and quiver. |
|Galloping quadriga.||ΧΕΡ Naked warrior kneeling. |
Æ .85[Berl. Cat., I. Pl. I. 8.]
|Artemis with bow, kneeling.
[B. M. C., Thrace, &c., p. 2.]
| „ Griffin running. |
|Artemis seated beside stag, feeling the point of her arrow. [Burachkov, Pl. XIV. 36.]|| „ Bull upon a club. |
|Janiform heads of young Dionysos(?) and Zeus (?). [Berl. Cat., Pl. I. 7.]|| „ Lion seizing bull. |
For numerous other varieties and types see Burachkov’s Plates (1894), and Koehne, Mus. Kotschoubey (1856).
Subsequently Cherronesus sought the protection of Mithradates against the incursions of the Taurians and Sarmatians, and it formed part of the kingdom of Bosporus until it was liberated by the Romans (Plin. iv. 26), after which it struck coins reading ΧЄΡCΟΝΗCΟΥ ЄΛЄΥΘЄΡΑC.
|ΧΕΡ Bust of Apollo with lyre.||ЄΛЄΥΘЄΡΑC Artemis huntress; beside
her, a stag recumbent. |
These coins are followed by a series bearing dates 73-131 reckoned from an era commencing B.C. 36. For list of recorded dates see Berl. Cat., I. p. 7. The earliest dated coin is a gold stater of year ΟΓ (73 = A.D. 37)(op. cit. Pl. I. 10).
Nymphaeum (?). A Milesian colony in the Tauric Chersonese.
|Head of nymph; hair in sphendone.
[Berl. Cat., I. p. 8.]
|ΝΥΝ Vine-branch in incuse square.
AR 73 grs.
Μ branch in incuse square AR 4 grs. (Coll. de Hirsch.)
Panticapaeum (Kertch) was a Milesian colony founded in the sixth century on the west side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. Its earliest coins are drachms of Phoenician (?) weight with a lion’s scalp on the obv. and an incuse of ‘swastika’ form on the rev. These are followed by others which, on account of their legends Α Π and have been usually attributed to Apollonia Pontica. As, however, they are frequently found at Kertch, and are identical in type with others reading (= ΠΑΝΤ), it is probable that the original name of Panticapaeum was Apollonia. They date from the fifth century B.C. The issue at Panticapaeum of gold staters in the fourth century is remarkable.
|Lion’s scalp facing. [Cat. Lemmé, 1872, Pl. I. 7; B. M. C. Thrace, &c., p. 87; Berl. Cat., I. 137.]||Α Π and two stars, or Α Π Ο Λ in the
four quarters of a shallow inc. sq.
AR 73 grs., 24 grs., and 4 grs.
|Id. [Berl. Cat., p. 9.]||Π Α Ν Τ Id. |
AR 48 grs.
|Id.||Π Α Ν and star in the four quarters of
incuse sq. (Hirsch Collection).
AR 126 grs.
|Lion’s scalp facing.||ΠΑΝΤΙ Ram’s head in inc. sq.
AR 24 grs. and smaller.
|Head of Apollo, or head of Satyr.|| „ Id. |
AR 24 grs.[Burachkov, Pl. XIX.]
|Head of bearded Satyr with pointed animal-ear, facing or in profile, some- times with ivy-wreath (Fig. 168).||ΠΑΝ Winged Panther, usually with
horned goat’s head and spear in
mouth, standing on a stalk of corn.
AV Stater, wt. 140 grs.
These gold staters are fine works of art without any trace of barbarism. The winged and horned monster is a variety of the griffin, the fabled guardian of the gold-producing regions of the north (Herod. iii. 116), the Ural or Altai mountains, whence the Greeks of Panticapaeum obtained gold in great quantities, as has been proved in our own time by the enor- mous masses of treasure unearthed in the tumuli near Kertch. It was perhaps owing to the cheapness of gold at Panticapaeum that the stater attained there the excessive weight of 140 grs.
The silver coins, mostly of the fourth century, usually bear on the obverse a Satyr’s head, and on the reverse a Bull’s head, a Lion with a spear in his mouth, or a Lion’s head.
The Bull’s head points to the cultus of Artemis Tauropolos. The Lion breaking a spear is perhaps only a variant of the winged monster on the gold coins. The bronze coins are numerous and for the most part resemble the silver in their types.
In the third and second centuries the silver coins have usually a head of young Dionysos or of Apollo on the obverse, and the inscr. ΠΑΝΤΙ ΚΑΠΑΙΤΩΝ, with various types of no special interest, usually a bow in case or bow and arrow, on the reverse. On one of the largest of the bronze coins of this time the head of Mithras (?), in Phrygian cap, occurs, with, on the reverse, Dionysos standing with panther beside him. Among other types may be mentioned the drinking Pegasos, and the Cornucopiae with the caps of the Dioskuri. For others see Burachkov (op. cit.).
Theodosia, W. of Panticapaeum, on the S. coast of the Tauric Cher- sonesus, issued a few small silver and bronze coins in the third century B.C.
|Helmeted head of Athena.
[Burachkov, Pl. XVIII. 1, 2.]
|ΘΕΟΔΕΩ Bull’s head facing, horns
AR 32 grs. and 4 grs.
The bronze coins read sometimes ΘΕΥ. Types, Heads of Athena; Artemis; or young Herakles. Rev. Bow in case and Club; Club and arrow; or Quiver. (Burachkov, l. c., and Z. f. N., xxi. 210.)
Kings of the Odrysae, &c. Between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars these petty kings had gradually extended their sway over the greater part of Thrace.
Sparadocus, brother of the Sitalces who died B.C. 424 (B. C. H., iii. p. 409).
|Horseman with two spears.
[N. C., 1891, Pl. IV. 7.]
|ΣΠΑΡΑΔΟΚΟ Incuse square, within
which eagle devouring serpent.
AR Attic Tetradr.
|ΣΠΑΡΑΔΟΚΟ (retrogr.) Horse walk- ing. [Berl. Cat., I. 328.]||Incuse square. Flying eagle with ser-
|ΣΠΑ Forepart of horse.||Id. |
From the reverse types of these coins we may infer that they were struck at Olynthus.
Seuthes I, son of Sparadocus and successor of Sitalces (Thuc. ii. 95-101; iv. 101; N. C. Ser. i, xx. p. 151, Pl. IV. 1, 2).
|Armed horseman (Fig. 169).||ΣΕΥΘΑ ΑΡΓΥΡΙΟΝ or ΣΕΥΘΑ
ΚΟΜΜΑ No types. |
AR Attic Didr.
|ΣΕV Horse galloping, &c.
[N. C., 1892, Pl. I. 5.]
|ΣΕΥΘΑ ΚΟΜΜΑ No type. |
These coins are remarkable for their reverse inscriptions, which show that we must probably interpret αργυρον and κομμα simply as ‘coin’, without any special definition either of type or value. The more definite use of χαρaκτηρ by Aristotle (Ath. Pol. c. 10), as referring to the denomi- nation rather than to the type of the coin, seems to be exceptional (see Athens, infra). Analogous examples are ΚΟΤΥΟC ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡ (see Cotys, p. 285), and ΓΟΡΤΥΝΟΣ ΤΟ ΠΑΙΜΑ (see Gortyna). On the other hand, the legend ΦΑΝΟΣ ΕΜΙ ΣΗΜΑ, ‘I am the sign of Phanes (?)’ (see Ephesus), clearly refers to the type, a stag, as a symbol or signet.
Metocus, circ. B.C. 400, called Medocus by Xenophon (Anab., VII. ii. 32; iii. 16; vii. 3, 11. Hell., IV. viii. 26). See Zeit. f. Num., v. 95.
|ΜΗΤΟΚΟ Head of bearded Dionysos.||Double-axe. Symbol, grapes. |
AR 18 grs.
The double axe is a symbol of Dionysos as well as of the great Thracian goddess Kotys or Kotytto, a divinity closely allied to the Phrygian Magna Mater (Preller, Gr. Myth., i. 549).
Amadocus II (?), circ. B.C. 359-351. The money of this king was struck at Maroneia and bears the name of the municipal magistrate, whence we gather that Amadocus was virtually supreme in this Greek city for a short time.
|ΑΜΑΔΟΚΟ Double-axe; above, ca- duceus. [N. C., 1891, 119.]||Incuse square. ΕΠΙ ΔΗΜ[ΟΚΡΙ]ΤΟ or
ΕΠΙ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ Vine in dotted
Teres III (?), circ. B.C. 350. The coins of Teres resemble those of Amadocus, and must also have been struck at Maroneia. Inscr. ΤΗΡΕΩ and ΕΠΙ ΚΑΣΙΓΝΑΚΙΟΣ, Æ .9 (Zeit. f. Num., v. 97; N. C., 1891, 120).
Eminacus (?). Silver stater found near Olbia.
|ΕΜΙΝΑΚΟ Herakles with lion-skin over head and back, kneeling on one knee and stringing his bow. [Z. f. N., iii. Pl. II. 4.]||Incuse sq. containing wheel round which
swim four dolphins. |
AR 181 grs.
Eminakos is probably the name in the genitive of some unknown Thracian dynast.
Samma... (?). Another unknown dynast, circ. B.C. 400 (Z. f. N., xv. 6).
|Female head with hair in net.||ΣΑΜΜΑ... Lion’s head in inc. sq.
AR 17 grs.
Saratocus, circ. B.C. 400. This dynast is only known from his silver coins (wt. circ. 17 grs.), reading ΣΑΡΑΤΟΚΟ, ΣΑΡ, or ΣΑ. Some of them with types of Thasos, obv. Kneeling Satyr, rev. Amphora, may have been struck in that island (Zeit. f. Num., i. p. 163). Others, with a youthful head on the obverse, and a bunch of grapes on the reverse, were probably issued from another mint on the mainland of Thrace (Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 53).
Bergaeus, circ. B.C. 400-350. Known only from his coins, which resemble those of Thasos. He was probably one of the Thraco-Mace- donian petty kings in the Pangaean region (R. N., 1903, 317).
|Seilenos kneeling or running, carrying nymph.||ΒΕΡΓΑΙΟΥ written round incuse square
AR 50 grs.
|Head of Seilenos.
[Zeit. f. Num., i. p. 164.]
|ΒΕΡΓ Fish. |
Spoces. Unknown Thracian petty dynast about the middle of the fourth century, who struck some small silver coins in the vicinity of or at Abdera. Obv. ΕΠΙ Ν[ΕΟΜ]ΗΝΙΟΥ, Head of Apollo (?) in linear sq. Rev. ΒΑ.. ΣΠΟΚΗΣ Griffin recumbent. AR 37 grs. (Berl. Cat., I. 118).
Cetriporis, B.C. 356. This Thracian dynast is mentioned as an ally of the Athenians against Philip in an inscription found some years ago on the Acropolis at Athens (Hicks and Hill, Gr. Hist. Inscr., p. 255). His coins resemble those of Thasos.
|Head of bearded Dionysos.
[Berl. Cat., I. Pl. VIII. 75.]
Hebryzelmis, B.C. 386-385. King of the Odrysae upon whom the Athenians conferred honours (Hermes, xxvi. 453).
|Bearded head l. in plain circle.
[N. C., 1894, Pl. I. 2.]
|ΕΒΡΥΖΕΛΜΙΟΣ Forepart of lion in
inc. circle. |
|Female head in turreted stephanos.
[Svoronos, Ephemeris, 1891, 161.]
Β Ρ Vase of the some shape as that on the coins of Cypsela.
Cotys I, B.C. 382-359. Dynast in Cypsela.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 202.]
|ΚΟΤΥΟΣ, ΚΟΤΥ, or ΚΟΤΟ. Vase of
the same shape as that on the coins
of Cypsela. |
AR 13 grs.
|Horseman. [Ibid., p. 203.]||Similar. |
Cersobleptes, circ. B.C. 357-343.
|Female head wearing sphendone.||ΚΕΡ Vase as on preceding. |
Cersobleptes was the son and successor of Cotys I, and, like his father, appears to have struck his coins at the town of Cypsela (p. 257).
Phile(tas ?) or Phile(mon ?), circ. 340 B.C., struck bronze coins similar to those of Cersobleptes and probably also at Cypsela. (Imhoof, Por- trätköpfe, p. 16.)
Seuthes III, B.C. 324. Bronze coins of careless style, attributed with almost equal probability to Seuthes IV by Leake, N. H., p. 20.
|Head of Zeus (?).||ΣΕΥΘΟΥ Horseman. |
|Eagle with closed wings.
[Z. f. N., xxiv. 45.]
|ΣΕΥΘΟΥ in corn-wreath. |
Lysimachus, King of Thrace, &c., B.C. 323-281.
The money of this king is more plentiful than that of any other of the successors of Alexander. His reign may be divided into three periods. I. B.C. 323-311, from the death of Alexander to that of the young Alexander (the son of Roxana). In this period Lysimachus, as Regent in Thrace, struck money in the name of Alexander the Great and of Philip Aridaeus with Alexandrine types. II. B.C. 311-306, from the death of the son of Roxana to the date of the adoption by Lysimachus of the title Βασιλευς. The coins of this period still bear the name of Alexander, though the letters ΛΥ are frequently added. III. B.C. 306- 281, coins inscribed ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ, at first with types of Alexander, and later with Lysimachus’ own types, as follows :—
|Head of the deified Alexander with horn of Ammon (Fig. 170).||Athena Nikephoros seated.
AV, AR Attic wt.[B. M. Guide, Pl. XXVIII. 18, 19; XXXI. 19, 20.]
|Young head (Ares ?) in close-fitting helmet.||Lion. Half lion, or lion’s head.
Æ Various sizes.
|Helmeted head.||Trophy. |
Æ Various sizes.
|Head of young Herakles.||Corn-wreath. |
Æ Various sizes.
The money of Lysimachus was issued from numerous mints, in Thrace B.C. 311-281, in Macedon B.C. 286-281, and in Asia Minor B.C. 302-281. After the death of Lysimachus his coins were imitated, indiscriminately with those of Alexander, by numerous autonomous cities, by no means exclusively in Thrace (see Müller, Münzen des Königs Lysimachos, and B. M. Guide, Pl. XLI. 1; LIII. 3, 4; LXIV. 3, 4).
Orsoaltius, circ. B.C. 300. Known only from his tetradrachms, copied from those of Alexander, but reading ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΟΡΣΟΑΛΤΙΟΥ (E. Muret, Bull. Corr. Hell., v. 331).
Cersibaulus, circ. B.C. 300. Known only from his tetradrachms of Alexandrine types, belonging in style to the first half of the third century. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΕΡΣΙΒΑΥΛΟΥ. (Berl. Blätt., H. 259; Berl. Cat., I. Pl. VIII. 72.)
Cavarus, circ. B.C. 219-200. The last Gaulish king in Thrace (Polyb. iv. 46, 52). He struck tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types, probably at Perinthus. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΥΑΡΟΥ. Symbol, Figure holding two torches. (Bull. Int. de Num., II. 1; cf. Z. f. N., xxiv. Pl. II. 2.) Also Æ.
|Head of Apollo.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 207.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΥΑΡΟΥ Nike stand-
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΒΑΣΙΛ ΚΑΥΑ Cornucopiae. |
Mostis, circ. B.C. 200, or later. Tetradrachms in imitation of the latest Lysimachian issues, but with portrait of Mostis on the obverse. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΟΣΤΙΔΟΣ, and dates ΕΤΟΥΣ ΙΓ , ΚΒ , ΛΒ , or ΛΗ , and sometimes magistrate’s name ΕΠΙ ΣΑΔΑΛΟΥ. Also Bronze. Obv. Head of Apollo, Rev. Horse, Æ .75; Obv. Heads of Zeus and Hera jugate, Rev. Eagle on fulmen (N. C., 1892, 5); and Obv. Head of bearded Herakles, Rev. Bow in case (Z. f. N., xxi. 211).
Cotys, first century B.C.
|Rude head of Dionysos r., copied from coins of Thasos.||ΚΟΤΥΟC ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗ[Ρ] Herakles
AR Tetr. 252 grs.[Z. f. N., iii. 242.]
Whether the king who struck this coin was the Cotys who died circ. B.C. 16 (Z. f. N., l. c.) or an earlier dynast of the same name (Lenormant, Mon. dans l'Ant., ii. 195), we will not venture to decide. The curious legend ΚΟΤΥΟC ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡ, ‘coin with the stamp of Cotys,’ finds its counterpart on the early coins reading ΓΟΡΤΥΝΟΣ ΤΟ ΠΑΙΜΑ (see under Gortyna in Crete) and ΣΕΥΘΑ ΚΟΜΜΑ (p. 282).
Dixatelmeus, first century B.C. (?).
|Head of Apollo.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΞΑΤΕΛΜΕΩΣ Am-
From the date of the constitution of the Roman Province of Macedonia, B.C. 146, down to the age of Augustus, we possess very scanty notices of Thracian affairs, and the only coins to which we can point as belonging to this period are base copies of the money of Lysimachus and Alexander, and rare tetradrachms imitated from the late coins of Thasos, read- ing ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΡΑΚΩΝ (Z. f. N., iii. 241). On what occasion the Thracians were sufficiently united in one homogeneous community to make use of a common currency we have no means of ascertaining.
The subsequent coins struck by kings of Thrace in Roman times are as follows. As they can hardly be called Greek coins, it will be sufficient to describe them very briefly.
Cotys III. B.C. 57-48.
|Head of Cotys r., diademed.||ΚΟΤΥΟC or ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΟΤΥΟΣ
Eagle on fulmen. |
Sadales, circ. (?) to B.C. 42.
|Head of Sadales r., diademed.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΑΔΑΛΟΥ Eagle on
Rhoemetalces I, B.C. 11-A.D. 12.
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΟΥ Head of king r., diademed. [Hunter, I. 437.]||ΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΥ Head of
Other coins of this king bear the heads, jugate, of Rhoemetalces and his Queen on the obverse (sometimes with a third small head in front), and of Augustus or Augustus and Livia on the reverse. There are also coins with the legend ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΑ (sc. δραχμα?) behind the head of Augustus (Journ. Int., I. 17).
Cotys IV and Rhaescuporis, A.D. 12-19. AR with ΚΟ (in monogram).
Head of king, Rx Head of Augustus, and Æ with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΚΟΤΥΣ Head of king, Rx ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΡΑΙΣΚΟΥΠΟΡΕΩΣ or ΡΑΙΣΚΟΥΠΟΡΙΔΟΣ Nike with wreath and palm (N. C., 1898, 327, Bibl.).
Rhoemetalces II with Tiberius. Coins assigned to this reign re- semble those of Rhoemetalces I and Augustus (R. N., 1900, 422).
Rhoemetalces III with Caligula, A.D. 37-46. Æ with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΑΣ Bust of king, Rx Head of Caligula.
Bizya, near the sources of the Agrianes, about eighty miles north-west of Byzantium. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Hadrian to Philip Jun. Inscr., ΒΙΖVΗΝΩΝ Magistrate under Hadrian, Presbeutes and Antistra- tegos; under S. Sev. ΗΓΕ[μονευοντος] (Berl. Cat., I. 139). Chief types— Head of young Dionysos, Rev. Seilenos with kantharos and askos; View of city enclosed by walls and turrets (Z. f. N., xxi. Pl. VIII. 5); Kapa- neus with shield, spear, and scaling ladder (Ephem. Arch., 1889, Pl. II. 15); Apollo (Iatros) between Asklepios and Hygieia; Banquet of God and Goddess (θεοξενιον) (Pick, in Jahr. Arch. Inst., XIII. 145); Hera seated with peacock on her knees; River-god, &c. Alliance coins with Byzantium.
Deultum. A colony established by Vespasian at the head of the gulf of Burgas between Anchialus and Apollonia. Imperial coins from Trajan to Philip Jun. with Latin inscr. COL. FL. PAC. DEVLT or C.F.P.D. (Colonia Flavia Pacensis Deultum). Chief types—River-god and Thalassa recumbent (Ephem. Arch., 1889, Pl. II. 25); Perseus rescuing Andromeda (Ibid., p. 97); Three nymphs, &c. For others see Berl. Cat., I. 158 sqq.
Hadrianopolis, on the Hebrus, founded by Hadrian. Quasi-autono- mous and Imperial from Ant. Pius to Tranquillina. Inscr., ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ- ΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ. Types often referring to the labours of Herakles. On some specimens is the river-god ΤΟΝΖΟC, an affluent of the Hebrus; also Galley; coiled serpent; Europa on bull; Orpheus with Eurydike and Hermes (Jahr. Inst. Arch., XIII. 138). For many other types see Berl. Cat., I. Magistrate’s title under Ant. Pius ΗΓΕ(μονευοντος).
Nicopolis ad Nestum, some 80 miles from the mouth of the R. Nestus or Mestus, Imperial only, of Commodus, Severus, Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. Full inscr., ΟΥΛΠΙΑC ΝΙΚΟΠΟΛΕΩC ΠΡΟC ΜΕCΤΩ. Types— Rider-god resembling Mên, Hades enthroned, Coiled serpent with radiate head, River-god Mestos (= Nestos), &c. (Perdrizet, in Corolla Num., pp. 217 sqq.).
Pautalia, south of Mt. Haemus, on the upper Strymon. Imperial coins from Hadrian to Elagabalus. Inscr., ΠΑΥΤΑΛΙΩΤΩΝ or ΟΥΛΠΙΑC ΠΑΥΤΑΛΙΑC, sometimes with magistrate’s name preceded by ΗΓΕ(μονευ- οντος). Types various and of considerable interest, e.g. Ge recumbent beneath a vine and surrounded by four children, ΒΟΤΡΥC, ΑΡΓΥΡΟC, CΤΑΧΥC, and ΧΡΥCΟC, emblematical of the fertility of the soil and the metallic wealth of the district; River-god CΤΡΥΜΩΝ; Laurel-wreath containing formula of acclamation. ΙC ΕΩΝΑ ΤΟVC ΚΥΡΙΟVC ΕΠ ΑΓΑΘΩ ΠΑVΤΑΛΙΩΤΑΙC (Journ. Int., 1898, 456); Asklepios; Askle- pios riding on flying serpent; coiled serpent radiate; and many others.
Philippopolis. Imperial from Domitian to Elagabalus. Inscr., Do- mitian to Trajan with Latin legend on obv. and Greek on rev.; afterwards wholly Greek:— ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ, or, after Severus. ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟ- ΛЄΩC ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛЄΩC, with addition of ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟΥ in time of Elagabalus. Occasional names of magistrates, with titles ΠΡ(εσβευτου) ΣΕΒ(αστου) ΑΝΤ(ιστρατηγου) under Ant. Pius, or, later, ΗΓΕ(μονευον- τος. Types numerous, among which, representation of Mt. Rhodope,
Plotinopolis, on the right bank of the Hebrus, took its name from Plotina, the wife of Trajan. Bronze of Imperial times, Ant. Pius to Caracalla. Inscr., ΠΛΩΤΕΙΝΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ, rarely with name of the Praeses preceded by ΗΓΕ(μονευοντος). Among the more noteworthy types are the river-god Hebros standing in a stooping attitude with one foot upon an overturned vase (Num. Zeit., 1884, Pl. IV. 6); also Askle- pios; coiled Serpent radiate; Thanatos, &c.
Serdica. Although this town was situated to the north of Mt. Haemus, it was at one time included in the province of Thrace. Imperial coins from Aurelius to Caracalla, and, after a break, again, under Gallienus. Magistrate’s title, ΗΓ(εμονευοντος) under Severus. Types, numerous, e.g. Head of Isis; Kybele on lion; Athena seated, feeding serpent twined round olive tree; Dionysos, Hermes, Ares, Asklepios, Herakles, Hera, or Aphrodite, standing; naked Apollo resting on staff of Asklepios with infant behind him (N. Z., 1891, Pl. III. 5); Tyche of Serdica seated on rock with swimming river-god (Oiskos) at her feet (Z. f. N., xxiv. 43); River-god (Oiskos) recumbent. For others see B. M. C. Thrace and Berl. Cat. I. Inscr., ΟΥΛΠΙΑC CЄΡΔΙΚΗC, or, on small coins, CЄΡΔΩΝ.
Topirus was probably situated about twenty miles NW. of Abdera, near the river Nestus or Mestus. It struck Imperial coins from Anto- ninus Pius to Geta. Inscr., ΤΟΠЄΙΡЄΙΤΩΝ or ΟΥΛΠΙΑC ΤΟΠЄΙΡΟΥ, sometimes with magistrates’ names preceded by ЄΠΙ. Usual type, Herakles seated on rock.
Augusta Trajana (Eski-Zaghra). The coins of this inland Thracian city were formerly confounded with those of the coast-town Trajano- polis, near the mouth of the Hebrus. Imperial, M. Aurelius to Geta, and, after a break, again under Gallienus. Inscr., ΑVΓΟVCΤΗC ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗC. Magistrate’s title, ΗΓΕ(μονευοντος) (= Praeses) on earlier coins. Chief types—Bust of Sarapis; Harpokrates; River-god; Demeter; City-gate; Three Nymphs; Dionysos; Kybele; Nemesis, &c.
Trajanopolis, on the Via Egnatia, near the mouth of the Hebrus. Imperial coins from Trajan to Geta. Inscr., ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ, usually without magistrates’ names, but occasionally with ΗΓ(εμονευοντος). Types—Apollo naked placing lyre on tripod with serpent round it; Hermes; Orpheus seated on rock playing lyre (Jahrb. Arch. Inst., XIII. 137).
In addition to the various Thracian kings and dynasts described under § P there are a few other coins of barbarous kings which, from their provenance, appear to be Scythian rather than Thracian. All seem to belong to the second or first centuries B.C., but as their dates are uncertain, I enumerate them in alphabetical order.
Acrosandrus. King of the Getae (?) circ. B.C. 100. Coins probably struck for him at Tomis. (Rev. Num., 1900, 397.)
|Heads of the Dioskuri jugate.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΑΚΡΟΣΑΝΔΡ. Busts of horses of Dioskuri. |
|Heads of Demeter and Persephone jugate.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΑΚΡΟΣΑΝΔΡ. Two ears of corn. |
|Head of Zeus.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΑΚΡΟΣΑΝΡ. Cornucopiae. |
Aelis. Æ. ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΑΙΛΙΟΣ. Obv. Head of Helios radiate; Rev. Two stars over monogram, consisting of the letters ΤΟΜ (Tomis?). (N. C., 1899, 89.)
Canites. Æ. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΝΙΤΟΥ. (Rev. Num., 1903, 31; Zeit. f. Num. ix. 155.) Obv. Heads of Demeter and Kore jugate; Head of Zeus laur. Rev. Two stalks of corn; Eagle on fulmen. Cf. with these the coins of Acrosandrus and Scilurus.
Charaspes. Æ. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΧΑΡΑΣΠΟΥ. (Corolla Num., 259.) Obv. Heads of the Dioskuri jugate; Rev. Eagle on fulmen.
Coson. Gold Staters. Middle of first century B.C.
|Procession of three men in Roman togas, the foremost and hindmost carrying an axe over his shoulder. In front, sometimes monogram : In ex., ΚΟΣΩΝ.||Eagle standing on scepter, holding wreath in one claw. [Berl. Cat. II Pl. II. 16.]. |
AV and EL 130 grs.
These much discussed gold staters (see Berl. Cat., II. 23) have been since Eckhel’s time (D. N., VI. 23) assigned to L. Brutus, who, Appian (Bell. Civ. IV. 75) says, struck coins from the treasures consigned to him by Polemocratia the widow of a Thracian dynast. The obv. Type is doubtless copied from the denarii of Brutus, but the coin must have been issued by an indepednat dynast named ΚΟΣΩΝ. The monogram LBR stands, in my opinion, not from L. BR(utus) but for ΟΛΒ (= Olbia) the place of mintage. The Eagle holding a wreath is an Olbian type (cf. Burachkov, Pl. VII-IX), and the rude workmanship corresponds with that of the Olbian coins. The provenance also, Dacia (accoding to Eckhel), points to Scythia rather than Thrace as the district to which they should be assigned.
Pharzoïus. King of the region of Olbia.
|Head of Hermes or of king; in front, caduceus.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΦΑΡΖΟΙΟΥ Eagle and O (Num. Zeit. viii. 238). AV Stater|
Sarias. Æ. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΑΡΙΑ, &c. Obv. Heads of Demeter or Apollo, Rev. Ears of corn or bow in case. (N. C., 1899, 88; R. N., 1903, 34; Imhoof, Porträtköpfe, p. 20.)
Saumacus. ΒΑΣΙ ΣΑΥΜ. Obv. Head of Helios. Rev. Bull’s head. AR 16 grs. (Zeit. f Num., viii. 329.).
Scilurus. This king also struck money in Olbia.
|Head of Hermes.
[Zeit f. Num., ix. 155.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΣΚΙΛΟΥΡΟΥ Caduceus and ΟΛΒΙΟ. |
Scostoces. Æ. Head of Apollo, Rev. ΣΚΟΣΟΤΟΚΟΥ, Galloping horseman (Rev. Num. 1903, Pl. V. 3). The coins of this dynast seem to be earlier than those of Scostoces, whose name occurs on gold staters and tetradrachms of the Lysimachian type. (Imhoof, Mon. gr., 53, 55; Rev. Num., 1903, 34; Hunter, I. Pl. XXIX. 6.).