[Babelon, E., Les monnaies d'or d'Athènes (Rev. des Etudes gr., 1889; Melanges num., I. 187).
Babelon, E., Traité des monnaies grecques et romaines, ii. I. 697 sqq.
Babelon, E., Les origines de la monnaies à Athènes (Journ. int. d'arch. num., tom. vii, 209 sqq., and tom. viii, 7 sqq.).
Beulé, E. Monnaies d'Athènes, 1858.
Christ, W., Die Solonische Münz- und Gewichtsreform nach Aristoteles (Munch. Akad. d. Wissensch., 1900, 118).
Droysen, J. G., Zum Münzwesen Athens (K. Preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch., 1882).
Fox, E., Some Athenian problems (Num. Chron., 1905, 1).
Von Fritze, H., Die Münztypen von Athen im 6. Jahrh. v. Chr. (Z. f. N., xx. 142).
Gilbert, G., Die älteste Münze Athens (Neue Jahrh. fur Class. Philol., 1896, Heft 8, 537).
Grotefend, C. L., Chronologische Anordnung d. athenischen SilberMünzen. Hanover, 1872.
Head, B. V., Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Attica-Megaris-Aegina. 1888.
Head, B. V., Ν or Μ on Athenian coins (N. C. 1889, 229).
Head, B. V., and Howorth, H., The Initial Coinage of Athens (N. C. 1893, 153, 158, 241, 247).
Hill, G. F., Solon’s Reform of the Attic Standard (N. C. 1897, 284).
Jørgensen, C., Notes sur les monnaies d'Athènes (Acad. royale des sciences et des lettres de Danemark, Bull. 1904, no. 5).
Kirchner, J. E., Zur Datirung der athenischen SilberMünzen (Z. f. N., xxi. 74).
Kirchner, J. E., Zu den athenischen Münzserien mit Monogrammen (Z. f. N., xxi. 266; cf. also Arch. Anz., 1898, 185; Rhien. Mus., 53 (1898), 389; N. C. (1899), 253).
Köhler, U., Münzfunde auf Euboea und in Eleusis (Mitth. d. arch. Inst., ix).
Köhler, U., Numismatische Beitrage (Z. f. N., xii. 103).
Köhler, U., Zur Geschichte des athenischen Münzwesens (K. Preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch., xli, 1896, 1089).
Köhler, U., Über die attische Goldpragung (Z. f. N., xxi. 5 (1898)).
Köhler, U., Die Solonische Münzreform (Ath. Mitth., x. 151).
Lehmann, C. F., Weiteres zu Aristoteles' Αθηναιων πολιτεια, X. (Hermes, xxxv. 636).
Lermann, W., Athenatypen, Munich, 1900.
Löbbecke, A., Griechische Münzen (Z. f. N., xxi. 260, ΔΗΜΟΧΑΡΗΣ—ΠΑΜΜΕΝΗΣ).
Macdonald, G., Amphora letters on coins of Athens (N. C. 1899, 288).
Nissen, H., Die Münzreform Solons (Rhein. Mus., 1894, 16).
Preuner, Aus griechischen Inschriften zu attischen Münzen (Rhein. Mus., N. F., xlix. 362).
Rathgeber, G., Silberne Münzen der Athenaier (Weissensee, 1858).
Reinach, Th., L'Histoire par les monnaies, 1902, 105. (Les stratèges sur les monnaies d'Athènes.)
Sallet, A., Erwerbungen, &c. (Z. f. N., xxi. 207).
Seeck, O., Die angebliche Münzreform Solons (Beitrage zur alten Geschichte, Bd. iv, Heft 2, p. 164. Leipzig, 1904).
Six, J. P., Monnaies grecques inédites et incertaines (N. C. 1895, 172, 206).
Athens. The fortunate recovery in 1891 of Aristotle’s lost book, Αθηναιων πολιτεια, which represents Solon’s reform of the coinage in terms which seem irreconcilable with the statements of other ancient authorities, has led, since the publication of the Historia Numorum in 1887, to a vast amount of discussion on the early coinage of Athens, and has incidentally stimulated numerous scholars, who are not specialists in numismatics, to a more or less careful study of the Athenian coinage, each approaching it from his own standpoint,—history, economics, metrology, epigraphy, &c. It can hardly be said that complete unanimity of opinion has been, so far, attained with regard to the exact dating of either the oldest or the more recent issues of the Athenian mint; but, at any rate, considerable progress towards a final agreement has been made. In the following pages it will be seen that my original classification of the coins of Athens has been to some extent modified in the light of all that has been written on the subject since the appearance of the first edition of the present work, and of my B. M. C., Attica, &c., 1887.
There can be no doubt that coins of some sort were current in Attica when Solon thought it necessary to reform the standards of weights, measures, and coinage, and it seems equally evident that any such coins must have been of Aeginetic and not Euboïc weight.
The tradition handed down by Plutarch (Thes. 25) that Theseus struck coins with the figure of an ox upon them is worthless; but when Philochorus (Schol. in Arist. Av. 1106; cf. Pollux ix. 60), who was ιεροσκοπος B.C. 306, and therefore not unlikely to have seen old coins among the Temple treasures, says that the earlier Athenian coins were didrachms of the Bull type, his assertion cannot be equally negligible. There exist in fact coins of Euboïc weight (B. M. C., Cent. Gr., Pl. XXII. 5, 6; XXIII. 7) with a bull’s head upon them, which I have attributed to Eretria, and these may have been accepted by Philochorus, as they have been by Beulé and other modern numismatists, as the earliest coins of Athens. But even so it is hardly conceivable that they can be earlier than Solon’s time.
In point of fact, although the Euboïc standard, either in its heavy (double) or light form, had been imported into and domesticated in Euboea and her colonies long before the invention of coined money, there are no extant European coins of this standard which can be confidently designated as pre-Solonian. But Solon, as a widely travelled merchant, no less than as a statesman, may well have perceived that, in the interests of Athenian commerce, it would be very advantageous if the Athenian standards of weights, measures, and his new coinage could be brought into uniformity with those which prevailed in the countries with which the merchants of Athens had the largest dealings. These lands were more especially Euboea and the numerous Euboean colonies, both in Chalcidice and in the West. It would seem therefore that he decided to abolish the old Pheidonian standards and to substitute for the foreign Aeginetan coins, hitherto in use, new denominations of Euboïc weight.
In these early days the Euboïc drachm in its heavy form (commonly known as the didrachm) weighed about 133 grs. That the earliest coins of this weight should be reckoned as drachms rather than as didrachms is probable from the fact that some of the specimens with the Gorgoneion and Lion’s head types (B. M. C., Cent. Gr., Pl. XXII. 10, and Babelon, Traité, Pl. XXXI. 14-17), weighing 268.5 grs., bear the mark of value of a didrachm (••). It must have been therefore at a later period than the issue of these coins that the Euboïc denominations were reduced by one half.
The drachm of the old Pheidonian or Aeginetic standard hitherto current in Peloponnesus and in Attica (?) weighed, on the other hand, about 93.1 grs. These two drachms (of 92 and 133 grs.) and their corresponding minae, each containing 100 drachms of their respective standards, stood therefore in relation to one another as follows :—
Pheidonian = Aeginetic Dr. 93.1; Mina, 9310 grs. = 70 Euboïc Drs.
Euboïc Dr. 133; Mina, 13300 grs. = 100 Euboïc Drs.
Aristotle (Αθ. πολ. c. 10) records this augmentation by Solon of the weight of the Mina from 70 to 100 Euboïc drachms in the following passage, which concludes with the necessary explanatory statement that the old Euboïc drachm, χαρακτηρ, or coin (i.e. monetary unit of Solon’s time) was identical with the didrachm (sc. of Aristotle’s own time, viz. 133 grs),1 Εν [μεν ουν τ]οις νομοις ταυτα δοκει θειναι δημοτικα, προ δε της νομοθεσιας ποιησαι την τον χ[ρ]εω[ν απο]κοπην, και μετα ταυτα την τε των μετρων και σταθμων και την του νομισματος αυξησιν. Επ εκεινου γαρ εγενετο και τα μετρα μειζω των Φειδωνειων, και η μνα προτερον [αγο]υσα [σ]τα[θμ]ον εβδομηκοντα δραχμας ανεπληρωθη ταις εκατον. Ην δ ο αρχαιος χαρακτηρ διδραχμον.
Androtion (Plut. Sol. 15), circ. B.C. 346, alludes also to Solon’s change in the weight of the mina. His figures are 73:100, while Aristotle’s are 70:100 :— εκατον γαρ εποιησε δραχμων την μναν προτερον εβδομηκοντα και τριων ουσαν—but this slight discrepancy is of no great importance, and would be easily explicable if we could suppose that the average weights of the Aeginetic and of the Euboïc drachms were reckoned by Androtion at about 92 and 134 grs. respectively, instead of 93.1 and 133 grs. The rest of the above passage seems, however, to prove that Androtion was oblivious of the fact that the drachm in Solon’s time had been double the
1 If it be objected that this is not what was intended by ην δ ο αρχαιος χαρακτηρ διδραcμον, and that the didrachm referred to must have been the Aeginetic didrachm current before Solon changed the standard, then we must fall back upon the hypothesis that the coin in Aristotle’s mind cannot have been that which is usually called the Aeginetic didrachm, viz. 186 grs., but must have been its half, viz. 93 grs. There would then be no difficulty in the passage, taken by itself, and without reference to the serious difficulties raised, (1st) by the coins of 268 grs. (B. M. C., Cent. Gr., Pl. XXII. 10, and Babelon, Traité, Pl. XXXI. 14-17), marked (••) as a Didrachm, and (2nd) by the account of Hippias’s subsequent alteration of the χαρακτηρ of the Athenian coins (i.e. from didrachms to tetradrachms of identical weight). Were it not for these objections, Aristotle’s words might be easily interpreted as follows :—
The old mina, formerly weighing 70 drachms, of Aristotle’s time (66.5 x 70 = 4655 grs.), was raised by Solon to 100 ( = 6650 grs.). Of course both minas contained 100 drachms, the old drachm weighing 46.5 grs., and the Solonian drachm 66.5 grs. The adoption of the latter in place of the former was the αυξησις του νομισματος. The old χαρακτηρ or didrachm of 93 grs. was replaced at the same time by the heavier coin of 133 grs.
It is worthy of note that at Corinth the coin of 45 grs. was called the drachm, and Aristotle may have regarded it in the same light.
The change of standard by Solon from the Aeginetic to the Euboïc can hardly have failed to influence various other cities, already using the Euboïc silver standard, to follow his example by issuing for the first time coined money of Euboïc weight, and greatly to promote the circulation of such coins in Attica itself, side by side with the Solonian issues. This sufficiently accounts for the fact that the so-called ‘WappenMünzen' of various types have usually been found in Attica.
Solon too, whose travels in Asia Minor had made him familiar with the electrum currency of Lydia and Ionia, may perhaps be credited with an attempt to introduce, side by side with his silver money, an electrum coinage similar to that which was in use across the sea. To his time, at any rate, I would assign the small electrum pieces of Athens, Chalcis, and Eretria (?), which have been occasionally found in Greece.1
|Owl to left. [B. M. C., Att., Pl. I. 1.]||Incuse square containing triangle.
El. Hemihecton, 21 grs.
|Owl, l., in linear circle. [ibid., Pl. XXIV. 18.]||Incuse square diagonally quartered.
AR Drachm, 124 grs.
|Similar. [ibid., Fig. 19.]||Similar.
AR ½ Obol, 11.2 grs.
The next series of Athenian coins consists mainly of rude silver bullets of 270 grs. (max.), which, as we have seen, must have been originally called didrachms2, though after the exchange, at Athens, of the heavy Euboïc mina for the light mina, exactly half its weight, they became tetradrachms.
These pieces bear on the obverse a head of Athena of very archaic style in an unadorned crested helmet,3 and on the reverse an Owl with
1 Beulé, p. 64, 1; Köhler, Münzfunde auf Euboea (Ath. Mitth., ix. 359).
2 See Didrachm of 268.5 grs (p. 367), (B. M. C., Cent. Gr., Pl. XXII. 10).
3 One specimen in B. M. has on the helmet the three olive-leaves, and on the rev. ...
A highly probable date for the inauguration of the Athena-head rev. Owl series is the occasion of the first celebration on a grand scale of the great Festival of the Panathenaic Games, in the summer of B.C. 566, which was attended by a vast concourse of strangers from all parts of the Hellenic world. Then, and at every subsequent quadrennial celebration of the Panathenaea, a large supply of current coin would naturally be in request.
The smaller denominations of the above period resemble the larger coins1 (B. M. C., Att., Nos. 27-39).
We have seen that in Solon’s time the drachm, according to Aristotle,3 probably weighed about 133 grs. We also learn that the nominal value of the current coins must have been doubled at an early date in Athenian history, for the chief denomination (χαραγμα or χαρακτηρ, circ. 270 grs.) is subsequently always designated as a tetradrachm—η γλαυξ επι χαραγματος ην τετραδραχμου, ως Φιλοξορος. εκληθη δε το νομισμα το τετραδραχμου τοτε [η] γλαυξ. η γαρ γλαυξ επισημου και προσωπου Αθηνασg (Schol. on Ar. Av. 1106).
The probable date of the demonetization of the older and extremely archaic money, and of a fresh issue of coins of the same weight but, legally and nominally, of different current value (presumably double the old value), is fixed by Pseudo-Aristotle (Oecon. ii. 4), who says of Hippias (B.C. 514-511) that το τε νομισμα το ον Αθηναιοις αδοκιμον εποιησεν. ταξας δε τιμην εκελευσε προς αυτον ανακομιζειν. συνελθοντων δε επι τω κοψαι ετερον
1 With the exception of Nos. 28 and 29. (See Six, N. C., Ser. III, vol. xv, 172 sqq.)
2 For an obol struck by Hippias in exile see infra, p. 377, and for a tetradrachm said to read on obv. and on rev., see Seltman, Num. Chron., 1908, p. 278 sq.
3 His evidence is confirmed by the coin of 268.5 grs., with mark of value indicating 2 drachms. (See above, p. 367.)
The unmistakably archaic and unaffected style of the head of Athena on the earliest specimens of the following series (B. M. C., Att., Pl. III. 5), as exemplified by the almond-shaped eye and the so-called ‘archaic smile,’ differentiates them from the slightly modified and conventionalized continuations which follow them (ibid., Pls. III. 6 and IV. 1-3). Towards the close of the fifth century the work becomes steadily coarser and more careless, but even these later coins are distinguishable from those of the next period (after circa. 393), on all of which the eye of Athena is shown in profile (ibid., Pl. V).
On the reverse side of the tetradrachms, as reissued by Hippias (?), the addition of a small waning (not crescent) moon behind the owl may perhaps serve to synchronize the issue of Hippias’s new coinage with the Panathenaic festival of July-August, B.C. 514, on which occasion a large issue of Athenian coins would naturally be required. The connexion of Athenian coin-types with the Panathenaea is well known, and becomes more evident at a much later date on the coins of the ‘new style’, where the owl is seen standing on a Panathenaic prize amphora.2 The decrescent moon on the earlier series is a less conspicuous symbol possibly referring to the same festival. The whole-night vigil, παννυχις, preceding the culminating Feast-day of the Great Panathenaea, was passed in carol-singing and in the choral dances of young men and maidens. The waning moon, a reversed crescent, did not rise until after midnight, when the torch-races and dances were all over, and her appearance above the eastern horizon in the early hours of the τριτη φθινοντος (the twenty-eighth day of the month) was signalized by hymns and ολολυγματα, the rising moon being greeted as the precursor of the dawn of the great festival day of the national goddess.3 It was during this very night, εν προτερη νυκτι των Παναθηναιων (Herod. v. 56), that Hipparchos was warned in a vision of the fate which awaited him in the early morning.
The reformed silver coinage of Athens, as reissued by Hippias (?), consisted of the following denominations :—
Dekadrachmon, 675 grs. (max.). Coins of this large size seem to have
1 Hippias can hardly have contemplated making any considerable change in the time-honored coin-types, as such a course would have been detrimental to the credit of the Athenian currency. Hence χαρακτηρ is, in all probability, to be here understood not as a παρασημον, or special type, but as the chief denomination of the Athenian coinage. See additional Note on p. 391.
2 Cf. C. Smith, B. S. A., iii. 188.
3 A. Mommsen, Feste d. Stadt Athen, 1898, p. 106.
|Head of Athena of archaic style, her helmet adorned in front with three olive-leaves erect, and at the back with a floral scroll; her hair in bands across her temples, and indicated by dots under the neck-piece of the helmet (Fig. 208).||Incuse square, within which, owl to front with open wings; in l. corner of square, olive-spray. [B. M. C., Att., Pl. III. 1; Babelon, Traité, Pl. XXXV. 8, 11.]|
Tetradrachmon, 270 grs. (max.). This was the denomination (the χαρακτηρ or χαραγμα of Athens) which for nearly two centuries enjoyed a world-wide currency, until it was at last superseded by the still more popular tetradrachm of Alexander the Great.
|Head of Athena as on the dekadrachm (Fig. 209). [B. M. C., Att., Pl. III. 2-5; Babelon, Traité, Pl. XXXV. 13-16.].||Incuse square, within which, Owl, r., head facing, wings closed; behind, olive-spray and small decrescent moon.|
A very rare variety has on the reverse an owl facing with closed wings and other differences in detail. (Z. f. N. xxi. Pl. IV. 7.) In my opinion it was not struck at Athens. (Cf. imitations of Athenian coins struck at Gaza in Judaea.)
Didrachmon, 135 grs. (max.). This denomination was only issued in small quantities, probably for local use, early in the fifth century.
|Head of Athena as above (Fig. 210). [B. M. C., Att., Pl. IV. 4; Babelon, Traité, Pl. XXXV. 12.].||Similar to tetradrachms, but the incuse square confined within a circular incuse, and no moon behind owl.|
Drachme, 67.5 grs. (max.). The hundredth part of the light Euboïc silver mina, and the unit of account.
|Head of Athena as above (Fig. 211). [B. M. C., Att., Pl. IV. 5, 6.]||Similar, but without the circular incuse; no moon.|
Triobolon or ½ Drachm, 33.75 grs. (max.), commonly struck for local use.
|Similar (Fig. 212). [B. M. C., Att., Pl. IV. 7, 8.]||Incuse circle. Owl to front, wings closed, between olive-branches.|
Trihemiobolion, 16.87 grs. (max.), struck for local use.
|Similar [B. M. C., Att., Pl. IV. 9.]||Incuse square. Two owls face to face, with olive-spray between them.|
|Similar [B. M. C., Att., Pl. IV. 10.]||Incuse circle. Owl facing, wings open: above, olive-spray.|
Obolos, 11.25 grs. (max.) (cf. R. N., 1887, p. 210), struck for local use.
|Similar. [B. M. C., Att., Pl. IV. 11.]||Incuse square, within which, owl, r.; behind, olive-leaf.|
Hemiobolion, 5.62 grs. (max.) (Xen. Anab. i, 5, 6; Arist. Ran. 554), struck for local use.
|Similar. [B. M. C., Att., Pl. IV. 12, 13.]||Similar.|
For Pentobols, Tetrobols, Diobols, and some small denominations, see next periods.
The silver money of Athens, during the period of her power and prosperity which followed the Persian wars, had gradually become almost an international currency, and was accepted by both Greeks and Barbarians in preference to all other coins (Arist. Ran. 721 sqq.). But there were times of depression, after her unfortunate expedition to Sicily, when Athens was driven to her reserve fund, and compelled to melt down and coin into money the gold ornaments which had been dedicated, with wise foresight, to her protecting goddess.
The first of these occasions was in the year B.C. 407-406, towards the close of the Peloponnesian war, when, after her great naval disasters, Athens had hastily to equip and man an entirely new fleet. To meet such an exceptional outlay the gold statues of Nike in the Parthenon were sent to the mint, and the following gold pieces were issued :—
|Head of Athena as on silver coins above described. [Z. f. N., xxi. Pl. I. 1, 2.]|| Incuse square. Owl r., on olive-branch; behind, olive-spray.
(Paris.) AV ½ Stater, 66.5 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. I. 3-4; N, C., 1893, Pl. I. 9.]|| Incuse circle. Owl to front, wings closed, in olive-wreath.
(B. M.) AV ¼ Stater, 33 grs.
|Id. [Z. f. N., xxi. Pl. I. 5, 6.]|| Incuse square. Two owls face to face; between them, olive-branch.
AV Hekte, 22.5 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. I. 7.]|| Incuse square. Owl r., on olive-branch.
AV Hemihekton 11 grs.
The financial straits in which Athens found herself in B.C. 406 were so severe that no silver money could be obtained, and bronze had to take its place as money of necessity. The new gold issue was, of course, all swallowed up for war expenses, and, in any case, it would not have been suitable for the small daily wants of the citizens. These were the conditions which Aristophanes (B.C. 405) laments (Ran. 725), viz. the disappearance of the far-famed old coins, τ αρχαιον νομισμα, and even of the new gold money, το καινον χρυσιον, and the substitution for them of base and hastily struck bronze pieces, τουτοις τοις πονηροις χαλκιοις, χθες, τε και πρωην κοπεισι τω κακιστω κομματι. One of these bronze tetradrachms, originally plated, is in the British Museum. Few survive nowadays, for, as we shall see, they were only current in Athens during the hard times which followed the Athenian collapse, viz. from B.C. 406-393.
During these thirteen years the Athenian mint seems to have been practically dormant, issuing only, for ordinary use, plated bronze tetradrachms and perhaps minute subdivisions in silver and in bronze. This state of things lasted until Conon’s brilliant victory in 394 inaugurated a fresh period of prosperity, destined to last until the Macedonian conquest. In 393 the wretched bronze money of necessity was cried down, the Town Crier being sent round to proclaim that silver was once more to be the only legal tender :—
ανεκραγ ο κηρυξ. Μη δεχεσθαι μηδενα
χαλκον το λοιπον. αργυρω γαρ χρωμεθα.ARIST. Eccl. 819.
The tetradrachms of the fourth century are roughly engraved and carelessly struck. They are, in fact, only imitations of the older coins. The semblance of the archaism is, however, delusive, as is evident from the manner in which the eye of the goddess is shown in profile. The die-engraver seems to have been trammelled by the condition imposed upon him of adhering to the old familiar types. He does not deliberately revert to archaism on aesthetic principles; on the contrary, he is consciously trying to emancipate himself from the fixed hieratic type which he was set to copy, and he modernizes, as far as possible, the head of Athena, without venturing to depart from the general outlines of the older type. His small innovations in the features of the goddess are compensated for, perhaps intentionally, by his rude treatment of the owl on the reverse (cf. the expressive and life-like owls on Pls. I-IV, B. M. C., Att., with the huge-headed and frightful caricatures of the bird on Pl. V. 3-6).
The smaller silver coins, which seem for the most part to belong to the earlier portion of the fourth century, though some of the minute divisions may be still older, are the following :—
Drachm. (Ibid., Pl. V. 7.) Similar to the tetradrachm.
Triobol. (Ibid., Pl. V. 13, 14.) Obv. Similar. Rev. Owl to front between olive-branches, but of later style than the earlier triobols (cf. Pl. IV. 7, 8).
Diobol. (Ibid., Pl. V. 17.) Obv. Similar. Rev. Four crescents, back to back, in incuse square. Cf. obol of earlier date with owl on rev. (Pl. IV. 11). In Rev. Num., 1887, 210, it is argued that these two pieces are fractions of the obol, Pentachalkon and Heptachalkon.
Tritartemorion, ¾ obol, 8.45 grs. Obv. Similar. Rev. Three crescents. (Ibid., Pl. V. 18; Pollux ix. 65.)
Hemiobol, ½ obol, 5.62 grs. Obv. Similar. Rev. Owl facing, wings closed, between two crescents. (Ibid., Pl. V. 19.)
Trihemitartemorion, 3/8 obol, 4.2 grs. Obv. Similar. Rev. Kalathos. (Ibid., Pl. V. 20.)
Tetartemorion, ¼ obol, 2.8 grs. Obv. Similar. Rev. Crescent. (Ibid., Pl. V. 21; Pollux ix. 65.)
Hemitartemorion, 1/8 obol, 1.4 grs. Obv. Similar. Rev. Owl facing, wings closed; on either side, olive-branch. (Ibid., Pl. V. 22.) This inconveniently small coin was superseded by its equivalent in bronze, the Chalkous, when that metal came into general use, probably after the middle of the fourth century.
At what precise date Athens was again compelled to have recourse to an issue of gold coin is doubtful. One point is, however, quite clear, and that is that the gold coins of the second issue are identical in style and fabric with the tetradrachms issued from 393 onwards. Köhler (Z. f. N., xxi. 14) has pointed out how much later in date they are than the gold coins of the first issue in 407-406, and he suggests 339 B.C. as the most probable year for an issue of gold and for another melting down of the gold ornaments of the Parthenon. The denominations struck on this occasion, and perhaps for a few years afterwards, were the following1 :—
Head of Athena with eye in profile, as on the tetradrachms struck after 393 (Fig. 213). [B. M. C., Att., Pl. V. 1, 2.]2
| Owl r., behind, olive-spray and waning moon; in front, kalathos; the whole in incuse square3. |
AV Stater, 133 grs.
|Id. [Z. f. N., xxi. Pl. I. 16.]|| Owl to front with spread wings; beneath, kalathos; incuse square?
AV ¼ Stater, 33 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. I. 17, 18.]|| Owl r.; behind, olive-leaf and berry, in front, kalathos; incuse square.
AV 1/6 Stater, 22.5 grs.
There are two smaller coins described by Köhler (l. c.), but they are of doubtful origin.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. I. 7.]|| Incuse square. Owl r., on olive-branch.
AV Hemihekton 11 grs.
The silver coinage of this period is far from plentiful. The tetradrachm and drachm preserve the old type of head with olive-leaves on the helmet, but the various issues are differentiated by the addition of a changing symbol on the reverse :— e.g. Gorgoneion, Bucranium, Prow, Trophy, Rudder, Cornucopiae. Wreath, Corinthian helmet, Trident, Stern of galley, &c. (Köhler, Sitzungsber. d. Berl. Akad. d. Wiss., 1896, Pl. XI. 7. 7; B. M. C., Att., Pl. VII. 12).
The other denominations below the drachm are :—
Pentobolon,4 56.25 grs. (max.).
1 Svoronos (Journ. int. d'arch. num., 1898, 107) attributes these gold coins to circ. B.C. 255 (when Antigonus Gonatas conferred freedom upon Athens), chiefly, it would seem, because they bear the same adjunct symbol, the Athenian kalathos, which occurs also, as an Athenian mint-mark, on certain rare tetradrachms of Antigonus (Τετραχμα Αντιγονεια, Babelon, Traité, i. 485).
This characteristic Athenian symbol is, however, not confined to one special period, for it is to be seen on some of the minute silver coins of the early fourth century B.C. (B. M. C., Att., Pl. V. 20). Both in style and in fabric (e.g. traces of incuse square) the Athenian gold staters (like the tetradrachms of the same style) belong, in my opinion, to the middle or the latter half of the fourth century at the latest. The specimen figured by Svoronos (op. cit., Pl. VI. 18) in support of his theory is, I am convinced, a modern fabrication. (Cf. the minute details (especially the misunderstood ear-ring and string of meaningless dots beneath the ear and behind the cheek) with the same parts of the genuine coins figured in B. M. C., Att., Pl. V. 1, 2.)
2 The specimen figured, Z. f. N., xxi. Pl. I. 14, is a modern forgery, as well as the one in Journ. int. d'arch., 1898, Pl. VI. 18 (see preceding note).
3 As with the AR coins, the incuse square is not always on the flan. But it is distinct on a specimen in B. M.
4 This denomination is mentioned by Arist. Eq. 798 (B.C. 424). Cf. also I. G., i. 170, 173, No. 324 a, 45 (B.C. 408). But no Pentobols of so early a period are known to exist.
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet, as on AV coins of Alexander. [B. M. C., Att., Pl. V. 11.]||Owl r., with open wings. Symbol, amphora, or amphora and decrescent moon.|
Tetrobolon, 45 grs. (max.).
|Head of Athena in plain Attic helmet, without the olive-leaves. [Ibid., Pl. V. 12.]||Two owls face to face.|
Triobolon, 33.75 grs. (max.).
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. V. 15.]||Owl to front between olive-branches.|
The earliest bronze coins of Athens, with the exception of the bronze money of necessity current only between 406 and 393 (see above, p. 373, and E. Fox in N. C., 1905, p. 1), are probably contemporary with the silver coins above described. Their issue, like that of the gold staters, may have been partly occasioned by a scarcity of silver, circ. B.C. 339. This perhaps accounts for the fact that the types of many of these bronze coins bear a remarkable resemblance to those of the rare silver pieces—Drachms, Pentobols, Tetrobols, Triobols—and to the somewhat earlier Diobols (B. M. C., Att., Pl. VI. 1-7 and 12, 13).
The frequent occurrence on bronze coins of this period of the Athenian kalathos and the Eleusinian ‘kerchnos’ as adjunct symbols is remarkable (cf. the kalathos on the gold staters). There are, in addition to the above, several other small bronze coins which may be given either to this period or to the next. These have the head of Athena in a Corinthian helmet on the obverse, and an owl; usually within a wreath of corn or olive, on the reverse (B. M. C., Att., Pl. VI. 8-11). It is also doubtful whether the exceptional coins with Eleusinian types, obv. Triptolemos, rev. Pig on Eleusinian βακχος with the ‘kerchnos’ in the exergue (B. M. C., Att., Pl. VI. 14-15), belong to this period, or whether they were struck under Macedonian rule. They were probably issued about 232, and stand first among a number of coins with types referring to the Eleusinian festivals (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XV. 11-18).
|Head of Zeus. [B. M. C., Att., Pl. XV. 2.]|| Athena hurling fulmen.
|Head of Athena. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 4.]|| Zeus hurling fulmen.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 7.]|| Zeus holding fulmen in lowered hand.
The first of these is certainly contemporary with Macedonian coins of Demetrius. The specimens of the second type, Zeus hurling fulmen, are
In addition to the current coins above described, there are a number of bronze monetiform tokens with a head of Athena, or more rarely of a lion, on the obverse, and on the reverse a large letter of the alphabet, single, Α, Β, Γ, Δ, &c.; double, ΑΑ, ΒΒ, ΓΓ, ΔΔ, &c.; triple, ΑΑΑ, &c.; or even quadruple; or sometimes reversed, ΓΓΓ ,ΒΒ ,Β, &c., the use of which Svoronos has explained in his treatise Περι των εισιτηριων των αρχαιων (Journ. int. d'arch. num., 1898) as numbered admission tickets to assemblies in the Theatre of Dionysos. The majority of these tickets clearly belong to the fourth century, before the Macedonian conquest. Some of them, figured by Svoronos on Pl. XV of his treatise, with the Athenian kalathos or the Eleusinian κερχνος as adjunct symbols, are undoubtedly contemporary with certain of the gold and bronze coins issued after B.C. 339.
Among the earliest of the numerous imitations of the Athenian coins of the old style the most remarkable is the recently published obol attributed by Babelon (Corolla Numismatica, 1906, p. 1) to Hippias, who may have issued money in his own name, perhaps in one of the towns of the Thracian Chersonese during his exile from Athens.1
|Head of Athena in unadorned crested helmet.|| Owl with closed wings; behind, ear of corn; the whole in incuse square.
AR Obol, 10.1 grs.
For the most part, however, the Asiatic and other imitations of the Athenian money are due to the fact that the source of supply, from the Athenian mint, of these widely circulating coins was no longer sufficient for the demand after B.C. 406; and probably failed altogether after the Macedonian conquest. Hence copies, more or less faithful in general aspect to their originals, began to be fabricated in various countries—Syria, Egypt, Persia, Arabia, Indian, &c. A few only of these imitations admit of definite attribution. It is even doubtful where those of the Satrap Mazaeus, bearing his name מזדי (N. C., 1884, Pl. VI. 9, 10), were minted. Other tetradrachms reading סויך come from Egypt, though Six (N. C., 1895, 209) would assign them to Cyrrhestica, and some obols have been recently published (N. C., 1908, p. 198) bearing symbols on the rev. apparently resembling Egyptian hieroglyphs.
The specimens bearing Himyaritic characters are undoubtedly Arabian, while others on which the owl on the reverse is converted into an eagle with reverted head are probably Indian (N. C., 1906, 10).
1 For a tetradrachm said to bear the letters on the obv. as well as on the rev. see Seltman in N. C., 1908, p. 278 sq.
|Head of Athena Parthenos in Attic helmet with triple crest, adorned in front with the foreparts of horses, in the side with a griffin or Pegasos, and on the back with a scroll; border of dots. [B. M. C., Att., Pls. VIII-XIII.]||Owl standing on Panathenaic amphora; in the field, two monograms, or two or three magistrates’ names, and an adjunct symbol; on the amphora, usually, a numeral (Α-Μ, or sometimes Ν) and, as a rule, two or more letters beneath the amphora; the whole in olive-wreath.|
No one who compares the thick and irregularly struck coins of the ‘old style’, which survived at least down to the Macedonian conquest (B.C. 322), with the thinner money of the ‘new style’ (cf. B. M. C., Att., Pls. V and VIII) can fail to see at a glance that a considerable time must have elapsed between the two issues. During this interval, which includes the period of Macedonian supremacy, there were very few autonomous coins struck at Athens (see above, p. 375). Whether any considerable number of regal coins of Macedonian types were minted there, is doubtful. The Τετραχμα Αντιγονεια of Antigonus Gonatas, with the ‘kalathos’ as a distinctive Athenian mint-mark (Babelon, Traité, i. 485), are the only regal coins which can be positively attributed to Athens.1
About B.C. 229 Athens entered into friendly relations with Rome, and shortly afterwards a foedus aequum between the two cities was arranged (Tac. Ann. ii. 53). In these circumstances Athens may, in all likelihood, have been in a position to reorganize her mint, and from the produce of her silver mines to issue from time to time silver tetradrachms equivalent in weight and intrinsic value to those of the successors of Alexander.
When Athens, about this time, began once more to coin money in her own name, she adhered to the types of her old coins, so far as to place the head of Athena on the obverse and the owl on the reverse, but the difference in the mode of treatment of these types was very great.
The head of Athena on the new tetradrachms was certainly suggested by that of the colossal chryselephantine statue by Pheidias in the Parthenon, described by Pausanias (i. 24. 5) as having on each side of the helmet a griffin, and in the midst a sphinx. On the coins the griffin is frequently replaced by a flying Pegasos; the sphinx does not appear, but in its place, the fore-parts of four or more horses, which Pausanias omits to mention, but which must have been a leading feature in the model which the die-engraver had in his mind.
On the reverse other modifications of the old type attract our notice. The intimate connexion of the coinage with the Panathenaic Festivals is further emphasized by the addition of the Panathenaic amphora beneath the owl, in place of the waning moon of similar, though less obvious, import; and the little olive-spray in the corner of the incuse square on the older coins is replaced by a complete wreath of olive enclosing
1 Specimens of these coins appear among the offerings in the Asklepieion between the years B.C. 261 and 253 (see supra, p. 232).
Various plausible arguments have been adduced in favour of the identification of the two annual magistrates with the occupants of important offices, e.g. the στρατηγος επι τα οπλα or the στρατηγος επι την παρασκευην (Reinach, Rev. dev. Etudes gr., i. 163); but these arguments have been effectively disposed of by Preuner (Rh. Mus., xlix. 396) and Kirchner (Z. f. N., 1898, 74), who have shown that the officers in question were not the chief magistrates of the state, but usually members of influential families, sometimes foreign princes, and very often closely related members of one and the same family, such as father and son, or two brothers. The names of some of these same individuals are also met with previously in more dignified offices, such as the archonship, while on the other hand they must occasionally have been under thirty, the minimum age for the holder of a regular αρχη at Athens (Sundwall, Undersuchungen, &c., p. 108).
At Rome the magistrates responsible for the coinage formed a triumvirate (Triumviri Monatales). At Athens they were, for circa. B.C. 229, a duumvirate; but the responsibility of these annual duumviri would seem to have been shared, during the greater part of the second century, but a third official, whose name appears beneath those of his two annually appointed colleagues.
Sundwall, after an exhaustive examination of the available evidence, concludes that the duumviri at Athens were not magistrates in the strict sense of the term; their office was an honorary επιμελεια and carried with it a λειτουργια (op. cit., p. 108). he has also given good reasons for supposing that there was an intimate association between the Athenian mint and the Areopagus. It seems probable that, on the later coins, one of the two επιμεληται is always an ex-archon (op. cit., p. 106). Moreover, this arrangement would appear to have superseded an even stricter system of control, to which the presence of a third official’s name bears witness. A scrutiny of the names that actually occur suggests that during the greater part of the second century a committee of twelve Areopagites was annually appointed and specially entrusted with a more direct responsibility for the purity, &c., of the coins, the members of this committee holding office in rotation; whenever a fresh issue of coins
The minute precautions which seem to have been taken to differentiate the issues of silver coins at the Athenian mint are further exemplified by the addition, beneath the amphora, of various initial letters of doubtful import; thought by some to stand for the names of the various officinae of the mint. But they are more probably, as Svoronos has suggested, the names of the various silver mines in Laurium from which the metal was procured. If these initials are to be interpreted in the latter sense, it would appear that some half-dozen mines were in almost constant work, while the rest, about twenty in number, were only occasionally resorted to.
In field . Two monograms,2 and adjunct symbol. Helmet well rounded and neatly executed. Belly of amphora rounder than on later coins. Fabric much spread. (B. M. C., Att., Pls. VIII and IX.)
1 With regard to some of these series see Kirchner (Z. f. N., xxi. p. 266).
2 On the later series of the monograms is sometimes resolved into its constituent letters.
Kernchnos and βακχος.
Cornucopiae or no symbol.
Ears of corn.1 (Fig. 214).
Pilei of Dioskuri.
Palm under amphora.
Palm behind owl.
Forepart of horse.
In field . Two abbreviated magistrates’ names and adjunct symbol. Style and fabric similar to Class I. (B. M. C., Att., Pl. X.)
|ΑΜΜΩ||ΔΙΟ||Kerchnos or no symbol.|
|ΓΛΑΥ||ΕΧΕ||Head of Helios. This is perhaps the Echedemos mentioned by Polybius (xxi. 2, 3), circ. B.C. 191-190 (Z. f. N., xxi. 75).|
1 See Journ. Int., 1906, p. 254.
|ΔΗΜΗ||ΙΕΡΩ||Helmet surmounted usually by Star.|
|ΔΙΟΦΑ||ΔΙΟΔΟ||Apollo naked with bow.|
|ΜΙΚΙ||ΘΕΟΦΡΑ||Nike in quadriga. Perhaps Mikion, son of Eurykleides, victor with quadriga, circ. B.C. 191 (B. M. C., Att., p. xxxix).|
|ΜΙΚΙ||ΘΕ||Bust of Helios to front. (Journ. int. d'arch. num., 1906, p. 266.)|
|ΧΑΡΙ||ΗΡΑ||Cock with palm.|
In field . Three magistrates’ names and adjunct symbol.
Workmanship neat and careful. In fabric the coins are smaller and thicker than those of the previous classes. (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XI.)
ΑΜΜΩΝΙΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΑΣ. Two torches. Cf. Αμμω.—Διο. in Class II, where Ammonios’s symbol is the kerchnos, which, like the torches, is an Eleusinian emblem. It is worth mentioning that a later Ammonios, Plutarch’s instructor, describes the kerchnos in his book περι βωμων και θυσιων (Athenaeus, xi. 476). This series falls quite early in Class III.
ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ ΝΙΚΟΓ. or ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ ΚΑΡΑΙΧΟΣ (Fig. 215). Elephant The first magistrate on this series which must have been issued in B.C. 176, is certainly Antiochus IV (Theos, Epiphanes), who was resident in Athens before his accession to the throne of Syria, B.C. 175.
The name of Καραιχος, who succeeded Nikogenes as second magistrate in the third month of the lunar year, recurs as first magistrate on a somewhat later series, Καραιχ.—Εργοκλε.
ΑΦΡΟΔΙΣΙ. ΑΠΟΛΗΧΙ. Nike. Sundwall (p. 96) dates this series B.C. 167.
ΑΦΡΟΔΙΣΙ. ΔΙΟΓΕ. Double cornucopiae. Date, c. B.C. 175 (Sundwall, p. 94).
ΑΧΑΙΟΣ ΗΛΙ. Cornucopiae and ears of corn. Date, c. B.C. 165 (Sundwall, p. 28).
ΔΑΜΩΝ ΣΩΣΙΚΡΑΤΗΣ. Quiver and bow. Date, B.C. 156 (Sundwall, p. 98).
ΔΙΟΓΕ. ΠΟΣΕΙ. Dionysos standing with thyrsos(?) or Demeter with sceptre (?) Date, c. B.C. 160 (Sundwall, p. 35).
ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙ. ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙ. Helios in quadriga. Date, B.C. 152 (Sundwall, p. 99).
ΔΙΟΤΙΜΟΣ ΜΑΓΑΣ. No symbol. Distinctly earlier in style than the series Ανδρεας—Χαριναυτης (c. B.C. 150), but not far removed from Χαριναυτης—Αριστεας (c. B.C. 170), with both of which series one of the third magistrates’ names, Χαριναυτης, connects it.
ΔΩΡΟΘΕ. ΔΙΟΦ. Forepart of lion. In style this is apparently one of the earliest series in Class III, but Sundwall (p. 100) would place it much later (c. B.C. 112).
ΕΠΙΓΕΝΗΣ ΣΩΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ. Eagle on fulmen. Date, B.C. 163 (Sundwall, p. 97).
ΕΥΒΟΥΛΙΔΗΣ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΗΣ. Archaic Artemis with fawn. Kirchner (Z. f. N., xxi. p. 81) has identified these two magistrates as brothers (?). They held office, according to Sundwall (p. 25), c. B.C. 165.
ΕΥΡΥΚΛΕΙ. ΑΡΙΑΡΑ. The three Charites. Preuner (Rhein. Mus. N. F., xlix. 371) has identified this Eurykleides as the nephew of the famous statesman Eurykleides of the third century B.C., and Ariara. as Ariarathes V of Cappadocia, who, before his accession, B.C. 162, was resident in Athens and obtained the citizenship. The series is dated by Sundwall (p. 95) in B.C. 169 (cf. B. M. C., Att., xlii).
ΙΩΙΛΟΣ ΕΥΑΝΔΡΟΣ. Bee. Date, B.C. 171. (Sundwall, p. 94).
ΗΡΑ. ΑΡΙΣΤΟΦ. Club covered with lion-skin and bow in case. Judging by style this series falls early in Class III. Kirchner and Sundwall date it somewhat later (Z. f. N., xxi. 77; Sundwall, p. 42).
ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΗΣ ΕΥΚΛΗΣ. Winged Tyche dropping vote into amphora. Sundwall (p. 98) gives this series to the year B.C. 154; Kirchner (Z. f. N., xxi. 92) to c. B.C. 130.
ΘΕΜΙΣΤΟ. ΘΕΟΠΟΜΝΟΣ. Trophy on prow of galley. Date, B.C. 165 (Sundwall, p. 96).
ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ ΚΛΕΟΦΑΝΗΣ. No symbol. Date, according to Sundwall (p. 99), B.C. 153. The Roman name Πουπλι(ος) occurs among the third magistrates of this series.
ΘΕΟΦΡΑ. ΣΩΤΑ. Winged fulmen. Date, B.C. 150 (Sundwall, p. 99).
ΚΑΡΑΙΧ. ΕΡΓΟΚΛΕ. Prow. The name Καραιχος occurs as second magistrate in the series Αντιοχος—Καραιχος (B.C. 176), and as third magistrate in Πολυχαρμ(ος)—Νικογ(ενης) (c. B.C. 170). Sundwall dates this series B.C. 172.
ΛΥΣΑΝ. ΓΛΑΥΚΟΣ. Cicada. These two magistrates were brothers. See B. M. C., Att., xliii, and Kirchner (Z. f. N., xii. p. 82). The series is dated by Sundwall (p. 96) B.C. 159.
ΜΕΝΕΔ. ΕΠΙΓΟΝΟ. Asklepios. Date, B.C. 177 (Sundwall, p. 93).
ΜΗΝΤΡΟΔWΠΟΣ ΜΙΛΤΙΑΔΗΣ (or ΔΗΜΟΣΘΕΝΗΣ) Grapes. Demosthenes succeeded Miltiades as second magistrate in the third month of the lunar year B.C. 151 (Sundwall, p. 99).
ΜΙΚΙWΝ ΕΥΠΥΚΛΕΙ. Dioskuri. These two were brothers. Date, c. B.C. 150 (Preuner, Rhein. Mus., xlix. 371 ff.; Kirchner, Z. f. N., xxi. 83; B. M. C., Att. xliv; Sundwall, p. 45).
ΡΟΛΟΜWΝ ΑΛΚΕΤΗΣ. Tripod. Date, B.C. 164 (Sundwall, p. 97; cf. Kirchner, p. 83).
ΡΟΛΥΧΑΡΜ. ΝΙΚΟΓ. Caduceus. Date, shortly after B.C. 170 (Sundwall, pp. 22 and 95).
ΣΩΚΡΑΤΗΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΔW. Apollo Delios. The archaic statue of the Delian Apollo (Overbeck, Gr. Plastik, i. 78) points to the time when Delos was presented to Athens by the Romans (B.C. 167-166). Sundwall (p. 97) would fix the date of this series as B.C. 162. About this time the Athenians in Delos may have issued the tetradrachms with the inscr. ΑΘΕ Ο ΔΕΜΟΣ in that island, and the bronze coins of the Apollo Delios type (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XIV. 9); see infra, p. 387.
ΤΙΜΑΡΧΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΓΟ. Anchor and Star. The first name in this series is in the genitive case. In style these coins seem to belong to the earlier years of Class III.
ΦΑΝΟΚΛΗΣ ΑΠΟΛΛWΝΙΟΣ. Artemis holding torch. Date, according to Sundwall (p. 97), B.C. 161.
ΧΑΡΙΝΑΥΤΗΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΑΣ. Artemis with two torches. Date, c. B.C. 170
In field . Three magistrates’ names and adjunct symbol. Workmanship rougher and more careless than in Class III(a). The helmet of Athena is flatter at the top and more coarsely decorated. The amphora is more elongated and the owl is increasingly rude in execution. In fabric the coins are thick and small. (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XII. 1-5.)
ΑΜΦΙΚΡΑΤΗΣ ΕΠΙΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ. Two ears of corn. Date, B.C. 104 (Sundwall, p. 100). Kirchner has pointed out (Z. f. N., xxi. 87) that Amphikrates and Epistratos were brothers.
ΑΝΔΡΕΑΣ ΧΑΡΙΝΑΥΤΗΣ. Demeter with two torches standing before seated figure. Date, c. B.C. 146 (Sundwall, p. 51). The coins of this series are much later in style than those of the series Χαριναυτης—Αριστεας.
ΑΠΕΛΛΙΚWΝ ΓΟΡΓΙΑΣ. Griffin (Fig. 216). Date, c. B.C. 100 (Sundwall, p. 68). The first magistrate is Apellikon, the Philosopher of Teos (hence his symbol, the Griffin), who, some years later, became with Ariston, a partizan of Mithradates. We meet with his name again as first magistrate in the series Απελλικων—Αριστοτελης.
ΑΡΟΠΟΣ ΜΝΑΣΑΓΟ. Winged Agon with palm, crowning himself. Date, c. B.C. 110 (Sundwall, p. 63).
ΔΗΜΕΑΣ ΕΡΜΟΚΛΗΣ. Head-dress of Isis. Date, c. B.C. 110 (Sundwall, p. 62). Some ten years later Demeas was again first magistrate in the series Δημεας—Καλλικρατιδης
ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΣ ΑΓΑΘΙΠΠΟΣ. Pilei of the Dioskuri. Date, c. B.C. 110-100 (Sundwall, p. 64). The third magistrate’s name on coins of this series is almost always abbreviated and sometimes omitted.
ΔΩΣΙΘΕΟΣ ΧΑΡΙΑΣ. Tyche holding sceptre and cornucopiae. These magistrates were brothers (Kirchner, Z. f. N., xxi. 90). In style this is one of the latest series of Cl. III (β), though Sundwall (p. 58) places it as early as B.C. 120.
ΕΥΜΑΡΕΙΔΗΣ ΑΛΚΙΔΑΜ. (or ΚΛΕΟΜΕΝ.) Triptolemos. Date, B.C. 125 (Sundwall, p. 54). Eumareides and Alkidamos were brothers (Kirchner, Z. f. N., xxi. 91). Alkidamos was replaced after the second month in the year by Kleomenes.
ΕΥΜΗΛΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΦWΝ. Tyche. Sundwall (p. 26) would assign this series to c. B.C. 165; Kirchner (Z. f. N., xxi. 78) to c. 146. Judging by style the latter date seems more probable.
ΙΚΕΣΙΟΣ ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΑΔΗΣ. Wreath. Date, after B.C. 120 (Sundwall, p. 59). Style and fabric rude.
ΚΟΙΝΤΟΣ ΚΛΕΑΣ. Roma seated, crowned by Nike. Date, shortly after B.C. 105 (Sundwall, p. 66).
ΝΙΚΗΤΗΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΣ. Gorgon-head. Date, c. B.C. 125 (Sundwall, pp. 27 and 52).
ΝΙΚΟΓΕΝΗΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΜΑΧΟΣ. Hermes holding caduceus. (Stephanephoros, according to Sundwall). Date, c. B.C. 120 (Sundwall, p. 57).
ΤΙΜΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ ΠΟΣΗΣ. Dionysos with mask and thyrsos. These two magistrates were brothers (Preuner, Rhein. Mus., N. F., xlix. 366). Date B.C. 115 (Sundwall, p. 100).
In field . Two magistrates’ names and adjunct symbol. Style increasingly careless. Fabric small and thick as in Class III (β).
ΑΠΕΛΛΙΚWΝ ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΗΣ. Demeter standing with ears of corn.. Date, c. B.C. 100 (Sundwall, p. 109); cf. previous series Απελλικων—Γοργιας.
ΑΡΙΣΤΙWΝ ΦΙΛWΝ. Pegasos drinking. Date, B.C. 88-87. Aristion is the well-known tyrant of Athens and strong partizan of Mithradates. Hence his choice of the drinking Pegasos, the Mithradatic coin-type, for his symbol (Kirchner, Z. f. N., xxi. p. 88). The third magistrate’s name is temporarily revived in this series (Sundwall, p. 104).
ΔΗΜΕΑΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΚΡΑΤΙΔΗΣ. Isis standing. Date, shortly after B.C. 100 (Sundwall, p. 109). The same Demeas was first magistrate some ten years earlier in the series Δημεας—Ερμοκλης, and third magistrate in Αροπος—Μνασαγο(ρας).
ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΣ ΜΝΑΣΑΓΟΡΑΣ. Dionysios standing with thyrsos. Date, shortly after B.C. 100 (Sundwall, p. 109). (Bunbury, N. C., 1881, Pl. IV. 4).
ΔΙΟΦΑΝΤΟΣ ΑΙΣΧΙΝΗΣ. Seated Sphinx. Date, early in the first century B.C. (Sundwall, p. 109).
ΒΑΣΙΛΕ. ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΗΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΙWΝ. Star between crescents (Fig. 217). This historically important series may be exactly dated B.C. 87-86, and follows that of Αριστιων—Φιλων. It is the only one of which gold staters are known (N. C., 1897, Pl. IV. 9). This gold issue (like that at Ephesus (q.v.)) was occasioned by the military necessities of Mithradates in his war with Rome. It thus appears that gold coins were only issued at Athens on rare occasions and for special war requirements. For the previous issues (B.C. 407 and 339?) the precious metal was probably procured by melting down the gold treasures of the Parthenon. The gold for this issue was doubtless supplied by a subsidy from Mithradates to his agent Aristion.
ΧΕΝΟΚΛΗΣ ΑΡΜΟΧΕΝΟΣ. Trident and dolphin.
ΧΕΝΟΚΛΗΣ ΑΡΜΟΧΕΝΟΣ. Coiled serpent.
ΧΕΝΟΚΛΗΣ ΑΡΜΟΧΕΝΟΣ. Roma seated. These three series were probably issued B.C. 91-98, corresponding with the archonship of Medeios, a period of strict oligarchical regime, during which an annual change of magistrates was not compulsory (Sundwall, p. 110).
In field . Two magistrates’ names and adjunct symbol. Style and fabric as in Class IV (α).
ΑΛΚΕΤΗΣ ΕΥΑΓΙWΝ. Helmet. These two magistrates seem to have been brothers (Kirchner, Z. f. N., xxi. p. 95). Sundwall (p. 113) dates them shortly after Sulla’s conquest.
ΑΜΦΙΑΣ ΟΙΝΟΦΙΛΟΣ. Demeter with reversed torches. Brothers, according to Krichner (op. cit., p. 96), c. B.C. 57. Style and fabric point to a somewhat earlier date.
ΑΠΟΛΗΧΙΣ ΛΥΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ. Artemis huntress. These magistrates were also brothers (Krichner op. cit., p. 97). Date, c. B.C. 60 (Sundwall, p. 113).
ΑΡΧΙΤΙΜΟΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙ. Isis standing. Date, c. B.C. 50 (Sundwall, p. 114).
ΑΡΧΙΤΙΜΟΣ ΠΑΜΜΕΝΗΣ. Thyrsos. Date, c. B.C. 30 (Sundwall, p. 115).
ΔΗΜΟΧΑΡΗC ΡΑΜΜΕΝΗC Cicada. (Z. f. N., xxi. 261, Drachm.) After B.C. 30. Time of Augustus (Sundwall, p. 115).
ΔΙΟΚΛΗΣ ΛΕWΝΙΔΗΣ. Asklepios.
ΔΙΟΚΛΗΣ ΤΟ ΔΕΥΤΕ. ΜΗΔΕΙΟΣ. Hygieia. (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XII. 7.)
ΔΙΟΚΛΗΣ ΤΟ ΤΡΙ. ΔΙΟΔWΡΟΣ Dionysos seated. (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XII. 8.)
ΔΙΟΚΛΗΣ ΜΕΛΙ. ΜΗΔΕΙΟΣ. Athena Parthenos. (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XII. 9.) The first three Diokles series belong, according to Sundwall (p. 115), to c. B.C. 40. The Διοκλης Μελιτευς of the last series is a different man, and may be dated a few years later, c. B.C. 35.
ΔΙΟΝΥCΙΟΣ ΔΗΜΟCΤΡΑΤΟC. Caduceus. Of this series drachms only are known. Sundwall (Z. f. N., xxvi. 273), on account of the late form of the sigma, assigns it to the time of Augustus, and believes it to be the last autonomous Athenian issue of silver coins.
ΕΠΙΓΕΝΗΣ ΧΕΝWΝ. Apollo Lykeios. (B. M. C., Att., p. 53) Brothers, according to Kirchner (Z. f. N., xxi. p. 100). Date, shortly before B.C. 50 (Sundwall, p. 114).
ΕΥΜΗΛΟΣ ΘΕΟΧΕΝΙΔΗΣ. Ares(?) resting on spear. Date, c. B.C. 60 (Sundwall, p. 114).
ΗΡΑΚΛΕWΝ ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΗΣ. Eagle’s head. Date, c. B.C. 60 (Sundwall, p. 114).
ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΣ ΘΕΜΙΣΤΟΚΛΗΣ. Thick fillet tied as a wreath. Date, B.C. 60-50 (Sundwall, p. 114).
ΚΑΛΛΙΜΑΧΟΣ ΕΠΙΚΡΑΤΗΣ. Triptolemos. Date, shortly after Sulla’s conquest (Sundwall, p. 113). According to Kirchner (op. cit., p. 101) these two magistrates were cousins.
ΚΛΕΟΦΑΝΗΣ ΕΠΙΘΕΤΗΣ. Conical stone (βαιτυλος) with knotted taenia hanging over it. Date, shortly after Sulla’s conquest (Sundwall, p. 113). According to Kirchner (op. cit., p. 101) these two magistrates were cousins.
ΚΟΙΝΤΟΣ ΧΑΡΜΟΣΤ[Ρ]Α. Two ears of corn. This Κοιντος is identified by Sundwall (pp. 67 and 114 note) with the archon of that name in B.C. 56-55, and is to be distinguished from the Κοιντος of the Κοιντος—Κλεας series, c. B.C. 105.
ΛΕΥΚΙΟΣ ΑΝΤΙΚΡΑΤΗΣ. Artemis with two torches, and Demeter. Lucius was archon B.C. 59-58. The series belongs to about that time.
ΛΥΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΟΙΝΟΦΙΛΟΣ. Poppy-head and two ears of corn. Date, according to Kirchner (op. cit., p. 97) and Sundwall (p. 113), c. B.C. 60.
ΜΕΝΕΔΗΜΟΣ ΤΙΜΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. Demeter seated. Date, before B.C. 50 (Sundwall p. 114).
ΜΕΝΝΕΑΣ ΗΡWΔΗΣ Hekate triformis. Herodes was archon B.C., 60-59. Sundwall dates this series c. B.C. 40.
ΜΕΝΤWΡ ΜΟΣΧΙWΝ. Harmodios and Aristogeiton. Date, c. B.C. 70 (Sundwall, p. 113).
ΜΝΑΣΕΑΣ ΝΕΣΤWΡ. Kerchnos.
ΝΕΣΤWΡ ΜΝΑΣΕΑΣ. Stag. These two series probably belong to two successive years, c. B.C. 80 (Sundwall, p. 113).
ΡΑΝΤΑΚΛΗΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΣ. Herakles μυστης holding in r. a little pig by the foot, and in l. the βακχος. (Svoronos, Riv. Ital. di Num., 1908). Sundwall (p. 114) places this series after B.C. 50.
ΣΩΤΑΔΗΡ ΘΕΜΙΣΤΟΚΛΗΣ. Βακχος Date, c. B.C. 50. Themistokles seems to have been the son of Theophrastos; cf. the series Θεοφραστος—Θεμιστοκλης (Sundwall, p. 114).
ΤΡΥΦWΝ ΠΟΛΥΧΑΡ[Μ]ΟΣ. Hekate triformis. Polycharmos was archon shortly after the capture of Athens. Sundwall (p. 113) gives this series to c. B.C. 80.
ΦΙΛΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ ΗΡΩΔΗΣ. Dionysos with kantharos and thyrsos. Herodes was archon B.C. 60-59. The form of the omega indicates that this series is earlier than that of ΜΕΝΝΕΑΣ ΗΡWΔΗΣ (see supra).
ΦΙΛΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΦWΝ. Nike. Kalliphon was archon B.C. 58-57. This and the preceding series may therefore be placed shortly after that date (Sundwall, p. 114).
That the above enumerated 110 series of Athenian silver coins of the ‘New Style’ cover a period of about two centuries, c. B.C. 229 to the time of Augustus, has been proved by Kirchner, Sundwall, and others. The sequence of the various series, as outlined by me in the B. M. C. on stylistic grounds, has been, in the main, amply confirmed by these historical researches, although the duration of the issues has been extended from the conquest of Athens by Sulla down to the time of Augustus. It is important, however, to remark that from the first to last there is a steady and continuous deterioration in style and change in fabric, which seem to leave no place for the inclusion in the list of the three following exceptional issues, which I am therefore inclined to regard as not struck at Athens itself :—
(i) In field of rev . Symbol. Naked figure to front brandishing a sword (Harmodius (?), N. C., 1902, Pl. XV. 14). This remarkable issue (of which four specimens only are at present known) is characterized by a very barbarous copy of the head of Athena on the obv., while on the other hand the rev. is carefully engraved in the style of the first half of the second century B.C., which is clearly its approximate date of issue. The very rude execution of the obv. die makes it, however, impossible, in my opinion, to assign it to Athens. I would
(ii) Head of Athena resembling in style the coins of c. B.C. 150. Rev. Without . Owl on rounded-bellied amphora, on which A, or no numeral; in a field two monograms, and ; no letters beneath (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XIII. 7, 8). Of this series there are tetradrachms, drachms, and bronze coins. Stylistically there is no place for them either in the monogram series of Class I (B.C. 229-197) or in Sulla’s time (c. B.C. 86). Although they are without , the numeral A on the amphora indicates conformity with the Athenian mint regulations. I venture, therefore, to attribute this series also to the mint of the Athenian Kleruchy in Delos, and to date the issue about the middle of the second century B.C.
(iii) Head of Athena resembling in style the coins of c. B.C. 86 of later. Rev. Without . Owl of thick and ungainly form on amphora; no numeral or mint-letters; in field, on either side, a trophy (Z. f. N., xii. 381). The identity of these two trophies with those of Sulla’s aureus and denarius struck in B.C. 82 is unmistakable. They are the two trophies erected by the Dictator in commemoration of his two victories over Archelaus, the general of Mithradates, at Chaeronea in B.C. 86 and at Orchomenus in B.C. 85 (Plut. Sul. xix). The absence of and the contrast in style between this tetradrachm and the Athenian issues of about the same date suggest the probability that, like the aureus and the denarius above mentioned, it was struck at some other mint than Athens for Sulla’s war requirements, and that the choice of the Athenian types was a purely utilitarian one (of which examples are not wanting in all ages). Possibly these were the coins which Lucullus struck for Sulla during the Mithradatic war. (Plut. Luc. iv.; cf. Plut. Sul. xxv), but there is nothing to indicate the place of mintage.
The bronze coinage of Athens is probably intermittent from its commencement, circ. B.C. 339, down to the time of Augustus, but it is almost impossible to classify exactly the numerous issues in chronological periods. I have already mentioned some of the types which seem to belong to the period before the reform of the silver coinage circ. B.C. 229 (p. 376 supra). Nor is there any difficulty in assigning to the period after 229 all coins with the head of Athena Parthenos with ornate helmet as on the silver coins of the new style. some coins also bear types identical with the adjunct symbols on the tetradrachms, and one remarkable
From about the time of Augustus there is no absolute proof that any coins, even of bronze, were struck at Athens until Hadrian’s reign at the earliest. In any case there must have been a long interval between the cessation of the autonomous coinage and the commencement of the quasi-autonomous bronze issues in Imperial times. When the privilege of coining bronze money was restored to the Athenians, they seem to have been also exempted from the obligation of placing the head of the reigning emperor upon the obverses of any of their coins, a special favour which apparently only a few Greek cities could boast of. From a historical point of view this is to be regretted, as it makes it much more difficult to define with precision the higher and lower limits of the local bronze currency of Imperial times. Comparing, however, the Athenian quasi-autonomous bronze coins in style and fabric with the Imperial coins of Corinth, we see clearly that they fall into the century, of thereabouts, between the reign of Hadrian, A.D. 117-138, and that of Gordian III, A.D. 238-244, and, moreover, that there is a distinct break between the earlier and the later issues (Journ. Int., vii. 110). The earlier issues are distinguishable from the later by their somewhat larger module, by a darker tint in the metal, and by their finer style and execution. The obverse type is (except on a few small coins) a head or bust of Athena in a crested Corinthian helmet with the occasional addition of her aegis. The verse bears the inscription or, more rarely, . The types are very numerous and interesting on account of the number of statues and groups which they represent. some of these seem to be copies of works of art mentioned by Pausanias (who visited Athens in the reign of M. Aurelius), among which are the following:— Athena Promachos (Paus. i. 28. 2); Athena Parthenos (Paus. i. 24. 7); Athena Polias (?) (Paus. i. 26. 7); Athena
In addition to the above there are also some agonistic types among the later issues which can hardly be earlier than the time of Gordian III. The most interesting is an agonistic table on which is a bust of Athena between an owl and a wreath. The top of the table is variously inscribed, ΑΔΡΙΑΝΕΙΑ, ΠΑΝΕΛΛΗΝΙΑ, or ΠΑΝΑΘΗΝΕΑ, clearly indicating that even in imperial times coins were specially issued to meet the requirements of the great public festivals. We have already seen that from the earliest ages the Athenian coin-types were intimately connected with the Panathenaea. The Hadrianeia and the Panhellenia were festivals founded by Hadrian, the latter on the completion of the Panhellenion, or temple of the Panhellenic Zeus, which Hadrian erected at Athens, (Αδριανος) αγωνα επ αυτω (επι τω Πανελληνιω) κατεστησατο (Dio Cass. 69. 16). It is probable that many other coins, less distinctly agonistic in character, were also struck for the public festivals, e.g. those with the seated figure of Zeus Olympios in connexion with the Olympia, an ancient festival dating from the time of the Pisistratidae, who began to build on the banks of the Ilissos the great temple of the Olympian Zeus, which remained incomplete until Hadrian’s time. The old festival of the Olympia, long neglected, was revived by Hadrian; and the coins which bear the figure of the colossal statue of Zeus Olympios of ivory and gold set up by Hadrian in the Olympieion may well have been issued on the occasion of the re-established games. On one day also during the Panathenaic festival a Regatta, αμιλλα νεων, was held in full view of the tomb of Themistokles, in the Piraeus, hence doubtless the coin-type which shows Themistokles stepping upon the prow of a galley.
The above are a few of the principal coin-types which illustrate the various festivals of the Athenian calendar (cf. A. Mommsen, Feste der Stadt Athen).
With regard to the denominations of the Athenian bronze coins we have little definite information. Pollux (ix. 65) says that the obol contained eight χαλκοι, and it is probable that the χαλκους consisted of four κολλυβοι (Hultsch, p. 228, note 2). We hear also of a division of the χαλκους into seven λεπτα, but, as there is considerable divergency in both
1 This type may, however, refer to the Athenian Festivals of the Διπολια, on which occasions a bull was sacrificed to Zeus Polieus (A. Mommsen, Feste d. Stadt Athen, 512 sqq.).
ADDITIONAL NOTE ON THE REFORM OF THE COINAGE BY HIPPIAS.
(see p. 370, note 1.)
If the world χαρακτηρ in the above-cited passage (Pseudo-Aristot. Oecon. ii. 4) is to be understood in its original sense as the special type or παρασημον of the city, and not, in its secondary sense, as the chief and characteristic coin or denomination, then we must suppose that Hippias did not restrike the coins which he had called in for that special purpose, but that he simply reissued the identical coins with no alteration in the types. There can be little doubt, however, that he changed the denominations and reissued, as tetradrachms, the coins of 270 grs. formerly reckoned as didrachms.
If, on this occasion, he made no modification whatever in the coin-types, the addition of the olive-leaves on the helmet and of the moon behind the owl must have been made at a later date, and, most probably, as Six and Babelon (Traité, pp. 762 sqq.) have suggested immediately after the battle of Marathon, B.C. 490.
Eleusis was the only Attic deme which was allowed by Athens (perhaps on account of its sacred character) to coin bronze money for the requirements of the Eleusinian Festivals. This privilege it possessed, however, only during a limited period, apparently from about B.C. 339 to 322. Cf. contemporary bronze coins of Athens :—
|Triptolemos seated or standing in winged car drawn by serpents, the lower part of his body draped, the upper part bare (Paus. i. 38, 6). [B. M. C., Att., Pl. XX. 1-4.]||ΕΛΕΥΣΙ Boar standing on Eleusinian βακχος, on the earlier specimens encircled with a wreath of corn. The more recent coins have an adjunct symbol in the exergue or field. |
|Head of Demeter or Persephone. [Num. Chron., 1881, Pl. IV. 5.]||ΕΛΕΥΣ Eleusinian ‘kerchnos’ standing on two Athenian kalathoi. |
Triptolemos was the great hero of the Eleusinian mysteries; his temple at Eleusis is mentioned by Pausanias (i. 38). He is here represented passing over the lands in his dragon-chariot making man acquainted with the blessings of agriculture. On some few specimens the figure has been taken for Demeter, but on the majority it is undoubtedly male. For other varieties see Rev. Num., 1890, 63 and 1908, 311; Journ. Int. d'arch. num., 1901, 513; and Ath. Mitth., IV. 250.
Oropus stood on the northern coast of Attica, exactly opposite Eretria in Euboea. The port of Oropus was the sacred harbour of Delphinium
|Head of Apollo [Z. f. N., xxi. Pl. IV. 10] or of Amphiaraos. [B. M. C., Att., Pl. XX. 5.]||ΩΡΩΠΙΩΝ Dolphin coiled round a trident. |
|Bearded head (Amphiaraos?) laureate. [Cadalvene, Recueil, 168.||ΩΡΩΠΙΩΝ Serpent coiled round a staff. |
With the reverse type of the first of these coins cf. the name of the harbour, Delphinium. That of the second, if it is not identical with the first, and wrongly engraved by Cadalvene, may refer to the worship of Amphiaraos, who at Oropus possessed a famous oracle and a statue mentioned by Pausanias (i. 34). On an Imperial coin of Gallienus, if indeed that coin be of the same Oropus, Amphiaraos is seen seated with a serpent beside him (B. M. C., Att., Pl. XX. 6) (cf. Paus. i. 34. 2). The cultus of this seer bore a close resemblance to that of Asklepios (Newton, Travels in the Levant, i. 30).
Salamis. From the first half of the sixth century Salamis formed part of the dominions of Athens until B.C. 318, when it fell into the hands of the Macedonians. It was again recovered by Athens, B.C. 232. It appears to have possessed the right of coining in bronze between circ. B.C. 339 and 318 (Köhler, Ath. Mitth., iv. 250).
|Female head wearing stephane (Salamis?), or corn-wreath (Persephone?). [B. M. C., Att., Pl. XX. 7-9.]||ΣΑΛΑ Shield with side-openings, as on coins of Boeotia. On it or beside it, sword in sheath with strap; other varieties have a triskeles, a gorgon-head, or an eagle, on the shield. |
The shield and sword are those of Ajax, the son of Telamon, to whom there was a temple in the island (Paus. i. 35. 3), and in whose honour the festivals called Αιαντεια were celebrated. The above-mentioned coins were doubtless issued on these occasions.
See also Imperial (Wellenheim, 3965, perhaps, however, misread) of Caracalla Rx Demeter standing with torch and ears of corn.