In the following pages I include in the province of Pamphylia only the strip of low-lying coast-land, some twenty to thirty miles in breadth, between Mount Solyma, the Lycian boundary, on the west, and the river Melas on the east. The mountainous country to the north, much of which was included in Byzantine Pamphylia, I have preferred to call Pisidia.
Aspendus (Balkyzi), on the river Eurymedon, about eight miles from the sea, was a populous and wealthy city. It began to coin silver on the Persic standard early in the fifth century B.C.
|Naked warrior, armed with round shield and sword.||Ε, ΕΣ, ΕΣΤ, ΕΣΤFΕ, ΕΣΠ, &c. In-
cuse square, Triskeles of three human
legs; in field, usually a symbol.
AR Staters 17.1 grs.
|Warrior, with shield and spear. (Fig. 317.)||ΕΣΠ Incuse square, Triskeles, with
lion running beside it.
AR Staters 170 grs.
|Horseman armed with spear.||ΕΣΤ, ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙΥΣ, &c. Boar.
AR Dr. 84 grs.
|ΕΣ Two-handled vase.
[Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 309, No. 1.]
|ΕΣ Triskeles; incuse square.
AR 18.52 grs.
|Vase without handles.
[Ibid., No. 2.]
AR 15 grs. or less.
To the end of the century belongs
[Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 309, Nos. 4f.]
|ΕΣΤ or no inscr. Head of Athena;
incuse square. |
AR 16.4 grs. or less.
The hoplite represents the soldiery for which Aspendus was famous.
Tissaphernes, whose head quarters in 411 were at Aspendus, issued staters, drachms, and hemidrachms of the Rhodian standard which have
|Two wrestlers engaged; on the later specimens, magistrates’ letters be- tween them. [Brandis, p. 494.]||ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙVΣ Incuse square, Slinger;
in field, triskeles; also, rarely, letters.
AR Staters 170 grs.
|Gorgoneion (on later specimens, of the Helios-type).||Head of Athena [Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 310,
Nos. 7, 8]. |
AR 15.5 grs. or less.
Aspendus was originally an Argive colony, and Brandis has conjec- tured that its coin-type, the Slinger, was chosen from the resemblance of the word σφενδονητης to the name of the town.
Concerning the Pamphylian legends on these and similar coins see Friedlander, Z. f. N., iv. 297; Imhoof, Z. f. N., v. 133; Bergk, Z. f. N., xi. 337; and Lanckoronski-Niemann-Petersen, Les Villes de la Pamphylie, i. p. 189. The form ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙVΣ corresponds with the Greek ΑΣΠΕΝ- ΔΙΟΣ. On a variety of the stater the words ΕΛVΨΑ ΜΕΝΕΤVΣ (B. M. C., Pl. XLIV. 16) are to be explained as a magistrate’s name. It would appear that the Greek element in the population of the town gradually decreased down to the time of the Macedonian con- quest. The astonishing abundance of the silver money of Aspendus is a proof of the commercial importance of the town; and the number of countermarks and barbarous imitations shows that it circulated largely in the country. For these countermarks, which seem not to be later than about 360 B.C., see Imhoof, Kl. M., pp. 312f. The later staters. many of which have the lunate C, continued to be issued probably until about 190 B.C.
The bronze coins of Aspendus appear to be as a rule later in date than the silver. The predominant types (see especially Imhoof, Kl. M., pp. 316 f.) are—
|Head of Athena.||Slinger; in field, two letters. |
|Forepart of horse, sometimes on shield.||Sling between two letters. |
|Horse galloping.||Slinger, Α C. |
|ΠΟ in mon. on shield.||Head of Athena. |
|Id., sometimes without shield.||Triskeles. |
|Shield.||Head of Athena; letters. |
|Gorgoneion.||Caduceus; letters. |
After the battle of Magnesia, Pamphylia was added to the dominions of the kings of Pergamum, under whose rule Aspendus appears to have been practically autonomous, for it was probably about B.C. 189 that it began to issue dated Alexandrine tetradrachms, ranging from year Α to ΚΘ and with ΑΣ before the seated Zeus on the rev. (Müller, Nos. 1196- 1221). Symbol, on some specimens, a sling. These are the last silver coins known to have been struck at Aspendus. Many of them bear countermarks, of which the Seleucid (?) anchor and the tripod are the most frequent. To this period also belong bronze coins (see
On the death of Attalus III, B.C. 133, Pamphylia passed, with the rest of his kingdom, to the Roman people.
Imperial coinage, Augustus to Saloninus. Inscr., ΑCΠЄΝΔΙΩΝ. Titles—CЄΜΝΗC ЄΝΤЄΙΜΟΥ, ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (Salonina), ΑCΠЄΝΔΟC Η CΥΜΜΑΧΟC ΡΩΜЄΩΝ. Types—River Eurymedon; Herakles stand- ing before Eurystheus (?), behind whom is a spear-bearer; Zeus seated and goddess seated or standing (Hera ?); Twin cultus-statues of veiled goddess, sometimes in temple, or held by Tyche (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 319); Sarapis; Harpokrates; Isis Pharia; Hephaestos forging shield; Athena voting; City-goddess voting; Nemesis; Triple Hekate; Asklepios; Apollo with raven; Pantheistic deity; Tyche standing, or of the Antioch type; Two wrestlers; Athlete holding crown and lyre; Agonistic wreath with ΘЄΜΙΔΟC and numerals ΤΞΘ, ΤΟΒ or ΤΟЄ, indicating a period of ten or nine years; &c. Marks of value Ι or ΙΑ (= 10 assaria) in time of Valerian and Gallienus.
Attalia (Adalia), founded by Attalus II, king of Pergamum. Auto- nomous bronze from circ. B.C. 159 to Imperial times. Inscr., ΑΤΤΑ- ΛΕΩΝ. Types—Poseidon; Dolphin; Trident; Rudder; Athena; Nike; Zeus; Hermes; &c. Imperial, Claudius to Corn. Valerianus. Inscr., ΑΤΤΑΛΕΩΝ. Types—Head or statue (sometimes in temple) of Athena; Pergaean Artemis in temple; Nemesis; Artemis with Athena and Nemesis; Head of Sarapis; Harpokrates; Helios in biga; Mên; Hephae- stos forging shield; Agonistic crown on table ΙЄΡΟC ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC: Wreath ΙЄΡΟC ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ (or ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟC) ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC; &c. Marks of value ΑΗ and Ι ( = 8 and 10 assaria) in time of Gallienus. Alliance coins with Athens (ΑΤΤΑΛЄΩΝ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΩΝ CΥΝΓЄΝΙΑ) and Side (q. v.).
Magydus (Laara), about five miles east of Attalia. Quasi-auto- nomous Æ (ΜΑ or ΜΑΓΥ, Bust of Athena, rev. Star in crescent; Head of Dionysos, rev. Hermes standing. Imperial, from Nero to Salonina. Inscr., ΜΑΓΥΔЄWΝ and numerals from ΙΒ to ΜΑ, perhaps referring to games celebrated at irregular intervals (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 176). Types—Athena standing; Demeter seated or standing; Zens seated; Aphrodite standing; Hermes standing; Sarapis standing; Rape of Persephone; River-god (Katarrhaktes ?).
Olbia (?). To this town, on the borders of Lycia and Pamphylia, Six (N. Chr., 1898, p. 217) would attribute silver staters and drachms of the beginning of the fifth century, explaining the legend ΛΒΙ as the Lycian form of Ολβια, and the other legends as a dynast’s name. The attribution is, however, for many reasons doubtful.
|Nude winged figure running, with ca- duceus.||~ΜΞΙΜ~C Lion, head reverted;
dotted incuse square. |
AR 180.6 grs.
|Similar.||Λ ΒΙ (?) Lion, head reverted; incuse
AR 178.6 grs.
|„||~ΜΞΙΜ~C Similar. |
AR 177.5 grs.
|Forepart of lion.||~~ΜΙΞΜΤ Head of Apollo; incuse
AR 46.8 grs.
Perga (Murtana) between the rivers Cestrus and Catarrhactes.
|Head of Greek Artemis, laureate (Fig. 318).||ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis
huntress, holding wreath and sceptre;
beside her, stag; in field, sphinx.
AR Attic tetradr.
|Id.||Similar, but no sphinx.
AR Attic dr. and ½ dr., and Æ size .75
|Id.||ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis
holding torch and bow. |
|Heads of Apollo and Artemis jugate.||ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis
holding torch and bow. |
|Head of Artemis.||ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis in
long chiton. |
|Id.||ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Nike.
|Id.||ΠΕΡΓΑΙ Sphinx. |
|Sphinx.||ΑΡΤΕΜΙ. ΠΕΡΓΑ. Artemis standing.
|Cultus figure of Artemis Pergaea in temple.||ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis
holding torch and bow. |
|Id.||ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Bow and
quiver, or quiver only. |
|Sphinx.||~ΑΝΑTΑΣ ΠΡΕΙΙΑΣ (ϝανασσας
Περγαιας) Artemis huntress holding
wreath and sceptre. |
Imperial coinage. Silver ‘cistophori’ of Nerva and Trajan (cultus figure of DIANA PERG. in temple), perhaps struck at Side. Quasi- autonomous Æ of Flavian period, and Imperial from Tiberius to Aurelian and Tacitus. Inscr., ΠЄΡΓΑΙΩΝ (or abbrev.), ΠЄΡΓЄΩΝ (Aurelian); ΠЄΡΓΗΙ; ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (from Valerian onwards); ΙЄΡΑ ΛΑΜΠΡΑ ЄΝΔΟΞΟC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟC ΠЄΡΓΗ ΠΡΩΤΗ (or Α); ΜΗΤΡΟ- ΠΟΛЄΩC ΠΑΝΦVΛΙΑC (Tacitus). Festivals: ΙЄΡΑ ΑVΓΟVCΤΙΑ, ΑVΓΟVCΤЄΙΑ ΙЄΡΟC, ΠVΘΙΑ ΑCVΛΙΑ ΙЄΡΟC or ЄΙЄΡΑ, ΙЄΡΟC, ΤΑΚΙΤΙΟC ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛ(Є)ΙΤΙΟC ΚΑΙCΑΡΙΑ(?), ΘЄΜΙC ΤΟ (= 370, cf. Aspendus), &c. Mark of value Ι from Valerian onwards. Types— Artemis Pergaea (ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟC ΠЄΡΓΑΙΑC, or ΠЄΡΓΑΙΑC ΑΡΤЄ- ΜΙΔΟC ΑCVΛΟV) in temple, represented as a baetyl decorated with bands of dancing figures, guarded by sphinxes, star and crescent in field, eagle usually in pediment (see Roscher, Lex, s.v. Pergaia); numerous forms of
Alliance coins with Apollonia Mordiaeum (q.v.), Delphi (ΠЄΡΓΑΙΩΝ ΔЄΛΦΩΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ), Ephesus, Mytilene (q.v.) and Side.
Side (Eski-Adalia), a few miles west of the mouth of the Melas. Its chief type is a play on the word σιδη (pomegranate). Greek inscriptions do not appear on the early coins, the inhabitants (colonists from Cyme in Aeolis) having forgotten their original tongue (Arr. i. 26). The coins point to a connexion with Holmi in Cilicia in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.
|Pomegranate resting on dolphin.||Head of Athena in Athenian helmet.
Incuse square. |
AR Staters and Tetrob.
|Pomegranate; across it, olive-branch.||Head of Apollo laureate. Incuse square.
[Macdonald, Hunter Cat., ii. Pl.
LVIII. 6; R. N., 1902, p. 344.].
AR Staters and Tetr.
|Pomegranate in olive-wreath.||Dolphin and human eye. Incuse square.
|Id. [Macdonald, Hunter Cat., ii. Pl. LVIII. 7.]||Two dolphins and sprig of olive. Incuse
|Pomegranate.||Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.
AR Staters, Tetrobols, and Obols.
[Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 334, Nos. 2, 3.]
AR 12.5 grs.
|Gorgoneion. [Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 178.]||Head of Apollo. Incuse square.
AR 15.6 gr.
|Athena standing, resting on shield and holding owl; in field, usually pome- granate.||Undetermined inscr.; Apollo Sidetes,
chlamys over shoulders, standing
before altar, holding laurel-branch
and bow; behind, raven. Incuse
|Similar, hut Athena holds Nike and spear; undetermined letters in field.||Similar, but Apollo (sometimes without
raven) rests on long laurel-branch and
sacrifices at altar. |
|Similar to preceding, but on basis.
[N. Chr., 1897, Pl. IX. 6—8.]
|Similar to preceding, but Apollo wears
short chiton as well as chlamys.
For attempts to decipher the inscription (a form of Aramaic ?) on these coins see Six, N. Chr., 1897, pp. 199 ff.
[Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 334, Nos. 5, 6.]
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.
AR 11.2 grs.
To the time of Alexander the Great and his successors belong the Alexandrine AV stater (Müller, Alex., 1248) and AR drachms of Philip III (Müller, Phil. III, 101, 102). In the third century Side began to issue bronze (Head of Athena, rev. Pomegranate; or Facing bust of Athena, rev. Athena fighting).
After the fall of Antiochus, Side continued to be one of the chief mints on the south coast. The types of the new tetradrachms were perhaps suggested by those of Alexander’s AV stater.
|Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet.||Nike holding wreath; in field, pome-
granate and magistrates’ names.
AR Staters and Drachms
Among the many countermarks found on these coins (see Mowat in Corolla Numism., pp. 189ff.) are some with a bow in case and initials of cistophoric mints : ΑΔΡΑ, ΑΓΙΑ, ΕΦΕ, ΛΑ°, ΠΕΡ, ΓΙΕΡΓΑ, ΣΑΛΗ, ΣΑΡ, ΣΤΡΑ, ΣΥΝ, ΤΡΑ, i. e. Adramyteum, Ephesus, Laodiceia, Pergamum, Sala (?), Sardes, Stratoniceia ad Caïcum, Synnada, Tralles. The tetra- drachms were thus assimilated to the cistophori.
To this period may be attributed bronze coins (size .8-.5) with inscr. ΣΙΔΗΤΩΝ. Types—obv. Head of Apollo or of Athena, rev. Athena with spear and shield accompanied by serpent; Nike with wreath; Pomegranate; or Pomegranate between caduceus and head of Hermes.
From B.C. 36-25 Side was in the dominions of Amyntas of Galatia (q. v.), who continued in his own name the issue of the tetradrachms.
Imperial Times. Quasi-autonomous Æ and Imperial from Tiberius to Aurelian. Inscr. and Titles—CΙΔΗΤWΝ; Α ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (from Gal- lienus); Γ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (Aurelian); CΙΔΗC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟV; Α. Є. (= πρωτης ενδοξου ?); ΛΑΜΠΡΟΤΑΤΗC ЄΝΔΟΞΟV; ΠΙCΤΗC ΦΙΛΗC CVΜΜΑΧΟV ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ ΜVCΤΙΔΟC CΙΔΗC (Z. f. N., v. 7); ΝΑVΑΡΧΙC; CΙΔΗ ΜVCΤΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟC, &c. On the Neocories of Side see Pick in Jahreshefte, vii, pp. 39 f. Festivals, &c., ΙЄΡΟC ΜVCΤΙΚΟC; ΙЄΡΟC ΠVΘΙΟC ΜVCΤΙΚΟC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΠVΘΙΑ ЄΙЄΡΟC ΜVCΤΙΚΟC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΠVΘΙΑ ΠΡΩΤΑ ΠΑΜΦVΛΩΝ; ΙC ΑΙΩΝΑ ΤΑ ΠVΘΙΑ; ΙЄΡΟC ΟΙ.ΚΟV- ΜЄΝΙΚΟC ЄΙCΟΠVΘΙΟC; ЄΙCЄΛΑCΤΙΚΟC; ΔΩΡЄΑ, &c. Marks of value from Valerian, Є, ΑЄ, Η, Ι, ΙΑ. ΙΔ (= 5, 8, 10, 14 assaria). Names of deities, ΑΘΗΝΑ ΑCVΛΩ; ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟC CΙΔΗΤΟV ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟV; ΠVΘΙΟC; ΑCΚΛΗΠΙΩ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩ. Types—Athena with spear, shield, and serpent; holding thunderbolt and crowning trophy; crowned by Artemis; voting; holding prow; holding temple; with Apollo and pomegranate tree; &c. Apollo wearing short chiton and chlamys, with long branch and phiale (Sidetes); radiate; as kitharoedos with Nike and agonistic table; with tripod; in temple; &c. City-goddess holding Nike or prize crown and part of ship. Tyche of Antioch type. Asklepios with human-headed serpent. Herakles and stag. Three Graces. Goddess on lion. River-god Melas. Harbour of Side. Galley. Three temples. Temple with eagle between two standards (the shrine in which the standards were kept). Soldier with vexillum under battlemented gates; &c.
Alliance coins with Delphi (CΙΔΗΤΩΝ ΔЄΛΦΩΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ), Myra, Aspendus, Attalia, Perga, Sagalassus, Alexandreia Aeg. (Athena and Isis).
Sillyum (above Assar-keui), between the Cestrus and Eurymedon. Autonomous Æ of third century B.C. and later with Pamphylian inscr. ΣΕΛΥ~ΙΥΣ (Σελυϝιυς, see Lanckoronski, Villes de Pamphylie, i. pp. 70 f.). Types—Head of Apollo, rev. Zeus seated, or fulmen; Head of bearded helmeted hero, rev. Figure of deity with raised r. hand.
In the second century B.C. Sillyum issued Alexandrine tetradrachms with ΣΙΛ and dates Γ to Ϛ (Müller, 1222-24), and bronze reading ΣΙΛΥΕΩΝ. Later the legend is CΙΛVЄΩΝ or CΙΛΛVЄΩΝ. Quasi- autonomous and Imperial from Tiberius to Aurelian. Title, ΦΙΛΗC CVΜΜΑΧΟΥ ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ. Mark of value Ι from time of Gallienus. Chief Types—Hero fighting boar; Lion attacking bull; Deity standing with raised r. hand; Helmeted hero; Mên on horseback or standing, or his bust (ΘЄΟV ΜΗΝΟC ΑCVΛΟ); Apollo Kitharoedos; Bust of Apollo; Herakles before Eurystheus (?) as at Aspendus; Aphrodite standing arranging hair; Demeter with long torch before stele support- ing vase; Dionysos; Pan seated; Veiled goddess to front with small figure beside her; Tyche of Antioch type; &c.