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Bithynia

[Waddington, Reinach, and Babelon, Rec. gén., ‘Bithynie’; Wroth, B. M. C., Pontus, &c.]

On the death of King Nicomedes III, B.C. 74, Bithynia was consti- tuted a Roman Province. The limits of the Province were subsequently enlarged, notably by the Pontic dominions of Mithradates Eupator, the whole Province being known as ‘Pontus et Bithynia'.


510

Commune Bithyniae (ΚΟΙΝΟΝ). Imperial— Æ, Claudius to Hadrian, probably struck at Nicomedia on the celebration of federal games. Inscr., usually ΒΙΘΥΝΙΑ, and (under Hadrian) ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΒЄΙΘΥΝΙΑC; also names of the Procurator (EpitroposΕπιτροπος) and Proconsul (AnthuptatosΑνθυπατος). Types: Female figure, ΒΙΘΥΝΙΑ (Rec. gén., pp. 236, 237); Shield and spear; Ears of corn; Temple of the Emperor. Under Hadrian silver pieces inscribed COM. BIT. were issued: rev. Temple. They weigh 154-169 grains (reduced Cistophori) and were current for three denarii (Rec. gén., p. 239 f.).

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Apameia, originally Myrlea, was renamed, circ. B.C. 202, by Prusias I, king of Bithynia, after his wife, Apama. It became a colonia, circ. B.C. 47.

Autonomous Æ. (i) Circ. B.C. 300-202. Inscr., ΜΥΡΛ, ΜΥΡΛΕΑ, or ΜΥΡΛΕΑΝΩΝ. Types: Athena; Apollo; Demeter; Head of Helios; Wheel; Humped bull; Horseman; Lyre; Corn-wreath, &c.

(ii) After circ. B.C. 202. Inscr., ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΜΥΡΛΕΑΝΩΝ or ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ; names of Proconsuls (first century B.C.), C. Papirius Carbo and C. Vibius Pansa, with dates from ‘Proconsular Era’ of Bithynia, beginning Sept. B.C. 282-1 (Reinach, Rev. Num., 1891, p. 374). Types: Head of Apollo; rev. Lyre. Head of Dionysos; rev. Roma seated.

(iii) Colonial Æ. Augustus to Saloninus. Inscr., COL. IVL. CONC. APAM. AVG. D. D., i.e. Colonia Julia Concordia Apamea Augusta, Decurionum Decreto; C. I. C. A. APA. D. D.; C. I. C. A. D. D. Types: Dolphin; Head of Hermes; Diana Lucifera; Apollo Clarius APOLLINI CLAR. (Rec. gén., No. 52, and p. 246 n.); Statue of Marsyas; Galley; Fish with open mouth, &c.; Flight of Aeneas (Rec. gén., No. 43); GENI OPTIMO COMMODO Genius crowning Commodus (ib., No. 56); VENVS seated on dolphin (ib., No. 61; cf. No. 65); &c.

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Astacus. This city (cf. Toepffer in Hermes, 1896, p. 124 f.; Imhoof, Journ. Int., 1898, p. 12; Rec. gén., p. 265) stood on a gulf of the same name, and the type of its coins, the astakosαστακος, Crayfish or Lobster, contains a play upon its name, and refers at the same time to the great numbers of these creatures which were found in the shallow waters of the gulf (J. Six, De Gorgone, p. 40). The Athenians founded a colony there B.C. 435/4.

Circ. B.C. 500-435. Persic Standard.
Lobster or crayfish.
[Imh., M. G., p. 234.]
ΑΣ Female head of archaic style; in- cuse square. Symbol: Swastika.
AR Dr. 77 grs.
Also Triobol and Diobol [Rec. gén. p. 266].

Circ. B.C. 434-400.
ΑΣ Lobster or crayfish. Female head of later style; incuse square.
AR 77 grs.
Lobster, holding shell in claws. Id.
AR 76 and 33 grs.

Astacus was destroyed by Lysimachus, B.C. 281, and when, in B.C. 264, Nicomedia was founded by Nicomedes I, he settled there the inhabitants of the old city of Astacus.

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511

Bithynium or Claudiopolis (Eski-hissar near Boli). Æ of first century B.C. under C. Papirius Carbo, ΒΙΘΥΝΙΕΩΝ, Head of Dionysos, rev. ΕΠΙ ΓΑΙΟΥ ΠΑΠΙΡΙΟΥ ΚΑΡΒΩΝΟΣ, ΡΩΜΗ. Roma seated. Date ‘224’ from Proconsular Era beginning B.C. 282/1.

Imperial— Vespasian to Gallienus. Inscr., ΚΛΑΥΔΙΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ; ΒΙΘΥΝΙΕΩΝ; ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΕΩΝ. This town was the birth- place of Antinoüs, and medallions were struck there in his honour, reading ΑΝΤΙΝΟΟΝ ΘΕΟΝ Η ΠΑΤΡΙΣ (Rec. gén., No. 13 f.). Types: Aphrodite on sea-horse; Antinoüs-Hermes, holding pedum and with a bull beside him, a tall plant in front, and a star over his head; Eros; Hygieia; Hermes; Tyche; Two goats butting, and bull.

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Caesareia Germanica (Ouloubad ? on Lake of Apollonia). Imperial— Æ, Augustus (Imh., Gr. M., p. 599) to Valerian. Inscr., ΚΑΙCΑΡЄΙΑC ΓЄΡΜΑΝΙΚΗC (contrast inscr. of coins of Germanicia Caesareia in Com- magene). Types: obv. ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ Head of Augustus, rev. ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΕΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑ Caduceus (cf. Imh., Gr. M., p. 599); obv. ΓΕΡ- ΜΑΝΙΚΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΣ Head of Germanicus, rev. ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΗ City-gate (Paris: Annuaire, 1882, p. 107). Also City- gate with inscr. ΕΠΙ ΣΑΛΟΥΙΔΗΝΟΥ ΑΣΠΡΗΝΑ ΑΝΘΥ. ΚΑΙΣΑ. (Titus); Harbour with distyle building and statue, sacrificial bull in front (B. M. C., Pontus, p. xix); Part of amphitheatre with spectators (N. C., 1903, p. 330; Rec. gén., Nos. 15 and 31); Galley; Zeus (frequent); Asklepios; Artemis; Sarapis; Herakles reclining (Imh., Kleinas. M., II. p. 501); Mountain-god ΟΛΥΜΠΟC (Imh., Gr. M., p. 597 = Monn. gr., p. 439, No. 1); Helios with torches (Gr. M., n. 599).

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Calchedon (Kadikeui), a Megarian colony on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus opposite Byzantium, was always intimately connected with that city. The coins of the two places (the earliest of Calchedon ex- cepted) differ only in one respect, viz. that the Bull on the money of Byzantium stands upon a dolphin, while at Calchedon he stands upon an ear of corn.

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Circ. B.C. 480.
Bearded male head (Calchas?); [cf. Svoronos in Eph. Arch., 1890, p. 168 f.]. Wheel in inc. sq. [Rec. gén., No. 1].
AR Triobol 37.5-30 grs.

Circ. B.C. 450-400.
Bearded male head, l. (Calchas ?). ΚΑΛΧ between the four spores of a denticulated wheel (cf. the type of Mesembria).
AR Attic drachm 61 grs.
Beardless male head, l. (Apollo ?). Id.
AR Triobol.

Circ. B.C. 400.
Beardless male head, r. (Apollo ?). ΚΑΛ and ivy-leaf between the four spokes of a wheel.
AR Triobol 30 grs.
Round shield or disk (with Medusa head ?). ΚΑΛΧ between the four spokes of a wheel [Rec. gén., No. 7].
AR Trihemiobol 16 grs.

512

Fourth century B.C.
ΚΑΛΧ Bull standing on ear of corn; var. symbols and mons.
[Rec. gén., p. 292.]
Dotted inc. sq., mill-sail pattern.
AR Stater 236 grs.; also ¼ Stater.
ΚΑΛΧ Half-bull standing on ear of corn; symbols and mons. Three ears of corn. 1/8 Stater 28 grs.
ΚΑΛΧ Bull standing on ear of corn. Inc. sq., mill-sail pattern.
AR Dr. 82 grs.; also Tetrob. and smaller divisions.

Also Æ, Types: Ears of corn; Astragalus, &c. (Rec. gén., p. 293 f.).

At the beginning of the third century B.C., tetradrachms and drachms were issued here of Lysimachian types (obv. Head of Alexander with horn, rev. Athena seated); see Rec. gén., p. 294. Also Æ, obv. Head of Athena, rev. Athena seated.

After circ. B.C. 280.
Head of Demeter veiled. ΚΑΛΧ Apollo seated on omphalos.
AR 215 grs.;
also AR with ΚΑΛΧΑ, 79 grs.
[Rec. gén., No. 28.]

Æ, Types: Trophy; Lyre; Heads of Apollo and Artemis; Heads of Demeter and Apollo; Poseidon seated, &c. (Rec. gén., pp. 295-7). Also Æ alliance coins inscribed with names of Calchedon and Byzantium (ib., p. 297).

Imperial— Tiberius to Tranquillina. Inscr., ΚΑΛΧΑΔΟΝΙΩΝ. Types: Apollo in Corinthian temple (Journ. Int., 1898, p. 18, No. 13; the city had an old temple of Apollo, Lucian, Alex. § 10); Apollo seated on swan or on tripod; Lyre; Tripod entwined by serpent; Poseidon; Hermes; Herakles reclining; ΑΝΤΙΝΟΟC ΗΡΩC Bust of Antinoüs, rev. ΚΑΛΧΑ- ΔΟΝΙΟΙC ΙΠΠΩΝ (sc. anethaekeανεθηκε) Antinoüs on griffin; Galley. Also quasi- autonomous. Head of Apollo, rev. Lyre and rev. Laurel-tree (Eph. Arch., 1889, p. 89 f.); see also Imhoof in Journ. Int., 1898, p. 15 f.; cf. p. 18 and Rec. gén., No. 50, with head of Rhoemetalces I, king of the Odrysae, A.D. 11-12.

Cius (Ghemlik), at the head of the gulf of the Propontis, which took its name from the city, was, according to Mela, the most convenient emporium for Phrygia. It was said to have been founded by Kios or by Hylas, Argonauts and companions of Herakles. On some of the coins Herakles is himself called ΚΤΙCΤΗC.

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There are no early coins of this town, its first issues dating from the age of Alexander the Great. All the gold staters known come from the Sidon hoards, which appear to have been buried either about B.C. 308 (Rev. Num., 1865, 8) or about B.C. 288, if the dates upon the gold coins of Ace in these hoards are to be reckoned from the Seleucid era. Six (N. C., 1885, p. 42) dates the earliest coins of Cius, B.C. 321.


513

Circ. B.C. 330-302.
coin image
FIG. 265.

Head of Apollo. (Fig. 265.) Prow, ornamented with star, and magis- trate’s name, ΑΓΑΣΙΚΛΗΣ, ΑΓ- ΝΩΝΙΔΗΣ, ΙΕΡΟΚΛΗΣ, ΠΡΟΞΕ- ΝΟΣ.
AV Stater.
Id. Beneath, ΚΙΑ. [On the weights of the AR see Imhoof in Journ. Int., 1898, p. 19.] Id. (For magistrates’ names see Rec. gén., p. 311 f.).
AR Persic Drachm 81 grs.
AR ½ Drachm 40 grs.
AR ¼ Drachm 20 grs.

Circ. B.C. 302-202.
Young male head, in Persian head-dress (Mithras ?). ΚΙΑΝΩΝ Club.
Æ .7
Id. [Cf. Hunter Cat., II. p. 242, No. 5; Journ. Int., 1898, p. 19.] ΚΙΑ Kantharos, grapes, and ears of corn.
Æ .65
Head of Apollo. ΚΙΑΝΩΝ Club.
Æ .7
Head of Herakles.   „  Club and bow in case.
Æ .8
Laurel-wreath.   „  Club and lion-skin.
Æ .8

After circ. B.C. 202 (Prusias ad Mare).

Under the rule of the earlier kings of Bithynia the silver coinage ceases. Philip V of Macedon destroyed the town in B.C. 202 and gave the site to Prusias I. It received from the latter the name of Prusias ad Mare, and struck bronze coins, reading ΠΡΟΥΣΙΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΘΑΛΑΣΣΗΙ: obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Club and bow in case; obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Tripod. One with name of an ΑΡΓΥΡΟΤΑΜΙΑΣ.

Between the conquest of Bithynia by the Romans, B.C. 72, and the accession of Augustus occur the coins of two queens, Musa, daughter of Orsobaris, and Orodaltis, daughter of a King Lycomedes (Reinach, Tr. Roy., p. 135); obv. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΜΟΥΣΗΣ ΟΡΣΟΒΑΡΙΟΣ, Head of Musa, rev. ΠΡΟΥΣΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΘΑΛΑΣΣΗΙ Head of Herakles. AE. Also obv. ΩΡΟΔΑΛΤΙΔΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΚΟΜΗΔΟΥΣ ΘΥΓΑΤΡΟΣ Head of Orodaltis, rev. ΠΡΟΥΣΙΕΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΘΑΛΑΣΣΗ, Fulmen. Æ. (Rec. gén., p. 316).

Under Roman Rule (Cius).

Under the Romans Cius recovered its original name, and Imperial coins are known from Claudius to Saloninus. Inscr., ΚΙΑΝΩΝ, ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ ΚΙΑΝΩΝ (chiefly Hadrian), CЄΥΗΡΟΥ ΒΑCΙΛΕΥΟΝΤΟC Ο ΚΟCΜΟC ЄΥΤΥΧЄΙ ΜΑΚΑΡΙΟΙ ΚΙΑΝΟΙ (Sept. Severus). Types:


514
ΗΡΑΚΛΗΣ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΣ Herakles standing; ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΝ ΚΙΑΝΟΙ Herakles standing; Herakles reclining; Athena; Sarapis; Aphrodite crouching (N. Z., 1891, p. 14); Eros; Youth Hylas, holding bucket from which water flows (cf. Strab. xii. 564); Youth Kios (?), adjusting sandal; Two goats with forelegs on amphora; Galley.

Claudiopolis. See Bithynium.

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Creteia-Flaviopolis (Geredeh), in the valley of the Billaeus. Inscr., ΚΡΗΤΙΕΩΝ; ΚΡΗΤΙΕΩΝ ΦΛΑΟΥΙΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ; ΚΡΗΤΙΑ ΦΛΑΟΥΙΟ- ΠΟΛΙC. Imperial— Antoninus to Gallienus. Types: Demeter in car drawn by winged serpents; Apollo, Demeter, and Dionysos (?) (Rec. gén., No. 38, and R. N., 1901, p. 5); Artemis; River-god ΒΙΛΛΑΙΟC or ΒΙΛΛΕΟC (Billaeus); Satyr seated (Rec. gén., No. 3); Temple, and two stags on bases (ib., No. 4).

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Dia, on the Euxine, between the mouth of the Hypius and Heracleia Pontica. The editors of the Recueil gén. (p. 341) attribute to it the bronze coins reading ΔΙΑΣ, assigned by Imhoof to Cabeira in Pontus (q.v.).

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Heracleia Pontica (Benderegli). This important Bithynian city at- tained its greatest prosperity in the latter part of the fourth century, under its tyrants Clearchus, Satyrus, Timotheus, and Dionysius. The standard in use at Heracleia is the same as that of Sinope, and is identical with the Aeginetic in weight, though perhaps not of the same origin. For full lists of the coins see Six, in Num. Chron., 1885, p. 51; B. M. C., Pontus, &c., and Rec. gén., p. 343 f.

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Circ. B.C. 415-394.

The silver coins (obv. Head of Herakles, rev. ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ outside a square compartment) assigned in B. M. C., Pontus, p. 139, Nos. 1-3, and Rec. gén., Nos. 1-4, to Heracleia under this date seem rather, on grounds of style, to belong to Heracleia Sintica in Macedonia (p. 244).

Circ. B.C. 394-352.
Head of bearded Herakles in lion- skin; beneath, sometimes, club. ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ Rushing bull; in field, sometimes, symbols, or letters.
AR Dr. 81-60 grs.
Id. ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ Club.
AR 1½ Ob. 18 grs.
Id. ΗΡΑΚ Forepart of rushing bull.
AR 1½ Ob. 18 grs.
Id.
[Rec. gén., No. 15.]
ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ Bow, quiver, and club.
AR 1/8 Dr. 8 grs.
Id. ΗΡΑ Bow, club, and quiver.
Æ .65
ΗΡΑΚ Head of City-goddess (or per- haps Hera) in turreted stephanos. Κ (for Clearchus? tyrant, B.C. 364- 352). Bow in case, and club.
AR Diob. and Obol.
Id. Κ Trophy.
AR Diob.

515
Time of the tyrant Satyrus. B.C. 352-345.
Head of young Herakles, l., in lion- skin; club sometimes beneath.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. XVIII. 22.]
ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ Head of City goddess, of finest style, in turreted stephanos.
AR Stater 181 grs.
Id. ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ Id.
AR Drachm 84 grs.
Id.   „  Id.
AR Tetrob.
Id. ΗΡΑΚ Id.
AR Diob.
Id., facing. Head of City-goddess.
AR Obol.
ΗΡΑΚ Head of City-goddess. Σ Trophy.
AR Diob. [Z. f. N., vii. p. 22.]

Timotheus and Dionysius. B.C. 345-337.
Head of young Dionysos, ivy-crowned, with thyrsos at shoulder. ΤΙΜΟΘΕΟΥ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΥ Herakles erecting trophy.
AR Stater 150 grs.
Id. ΤΙΜΟΘΕΟΥ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΥ Id.
AR Triob. 38 grs.

Dionysius alone. B.C. 337-305.
coin image
FIG. 266.

Coins similar to the above, but without the name of Timotheus. Staters, Drachms, and Triobols. (Fig. 266.) Also Æ Head of Herakles, rev. ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΥ, Bow in Case.

Clearchus II and Oxathres. B.C. 305-302.

Dionysius was succeeded in the tyranny by his two sons Clearchus and Oxathres, who reigned under the guardianship of their mother Amastris. To their time may perhaps be attributed the following.

Head of young Dionysos, as above.
[Num. Chron., 1885, p. 59.]
ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩΤΑΝ Herakles standing facing, leaning on club, and crowned by Nike.
AR Stater 149 grs.

Time of Lysimachus. B.C. 302-281.
Head of young Herakles in lion-skin. ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩΤΑΝ Dionysos seated, hold- ing kantharos and thyrsos.
AR Stater 152 grs.
Head of young Dionysos.
[Rec. gén., No. 46.]
Same inscr. and similar type.
AR Dr. 77 grs.
Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. XXIX. 26.]
ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩ Dionysos seated, holding kantharos and thyrsos, bound with ivy.
AR Attic Tetradr. 254 grs.
Head of young Herakles, facing.
[Zeit. f. Num., vii. Pl. I. 13.]
Nike, naked to waist, kneeling on a club, and tracing the last letter of the word ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ.
AR 104 grs.

516

The last mentioned coin is now, preferably, attributed in Rec. gén., p. 352, to Heracleia in Lucania.

The autonomous bronze coins with ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩΤΑΝ, obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Running Lion, Club and Bow in case, &c., belong for the most part to the time of Lysimachus and later. Some Æ with ΡΑΒ in monogram may belong to one of the Tyrants of Heracleia, B.C. 70-31; inscr. ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩΤΑΝ. Types: Statue of Athena; Statue of Hera (?); Dionysos: see Journ. Int., 1898, p. 21 f.: cf. Rec. gén., p. 356.

Imperial and Quasi-autonomous. Claudius to Macrianus Jun. Inscr., ΗΡΑΚΛЄΩΤΑΝ ΜΑΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΑΝ (Trajan); ΗΡΑΚΛΗΑC ΠΟΝΤΩ (Doric for ΠΟΝΤΟΥ) or ЄΝ ΠΟΝΤΩ; ΗΡΑΚΛЄΩΤΑΝ ΠΟΝΤΩ or ЄΝ ΠΟΝΤΩ; ΗΡΑΚΛΗΑC ΝЄΟΚΟΡΩΝ (Gallienus, &c); ΗΡΑΚΛЄΩΤΑΝ ΜΑΤΡΟC ΑΠΟΙΚΩΝ ΠΟΛΙΩΝ. Types: Zeus seated, in front the Charites (Journ. Int., 1898, p. 23); Poseidon; Athena; Asklepios; youthful Askle- pios? (Rec. gén., No. 168); Dionysos (on coins of younger Macrianus, &c., Z. f. N., vii. p. 24, No. 8); Aphrodite (Journ. Int., 1898, p. 24), Agatho- daemon; Armed goddess (Rec. gén., No. 95); View of Stadium of Heracleia (Rec. gén., No. 76); Various Labours of Herakles (N. C., 1898, p. 105); Herakles dragging Kerberos (at Heracleia was one of the mouths of Hades); ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙCΤΑΝ Head of Herakles; The Tyche of the city seated between the Pontos Euxeinos and a River-god (Imh., Kleinas. M., p. 8); Funeral Pyre (Imh., Gr. M., p. 601). Names of Pro- consuls: (ΕΠΙ ΑΝΘΥΠΑΤΟΥ, &c.), Attius Lakon (Nero), Z. f. N., vii. p. 23, No. 6; M. Plancius Varus (Vespasian). Neocorate first appears on coins of Philip I.

Iuliopolis, originally Gordiucome.

Imperial— Vespasian to Gallienus, sometimes with name of Proconsul of Bithynia, M. Plancius Varus (N. Z., 1891, p. 76). Inscr., ΙΟΥΛΙΟ- ΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ, occasionally with title ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (Eckhel, ii. 422); ΙΟΥΛΙΟΠΟΛΙC. Types: Mên; Sarapis; Zeus; Athena; Kybele; Nemesis; Emperor sacrificing; Baetyl of Elagabal in quadriga; Military standards; River-god CΑΓΑ(risρις); River-god CΚΟΠΑC.

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Myrlea. See under Apameia, p. 510 supra.

Nicaea (Isnik). This town, originally Ancore, was rebuilt by Anti- gonus circ. B.C. 316 and called Antigoneia; it was renamed Nicaea by Lysimachus, after which it soon rose to be one of the chief Cities of the kingdom of Bithynia.

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Autonomous bronze, of the first century B.C., with names of the Pro- consuls, C. Papirius Carbo and C. Vibius Pansa: dates according to Era beginning Sept. 282-1 B.C. (B. M. C., Pont., p. 152 f.; R. N., 1887, p. 362 f.; 1891, p. 374).

Imperial— Augustus to Quietus. Inscr., ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩΝ, ΝΕΙΚΑΙΕΩΝ, or ΝΕΙΚ. Honorific titles— ΠΡΩΤΟΙ ΠΟΝΤ. ΚΑΙ ΒΙΘ.; ΠΡΩΤΟΙ ΤΗΣ ΕΠΑΡΧΕΙΑΣ; ΑΡΙΣΤΟΙ ΜΕΓΙΣΤΟΙ, ЄΥCЄΒЄΙC ЄΥΓЄΝЄΙC, &c. Magis- trates. Names of Proconsuls, Augustus to Vespasian. Chief Types: Various buildings (B. M. C., Pont., pp. 153, 154; Imh., Mon. gr., p. 240); Walls of Nicaea; ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΝ ΝΕΙΚΑΙΕΙΣ Herakles; ΡΩΜΗΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟ- ΛΙΝ ΝΕΙΚ. Roma seated; ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΝ Asklepios; ΑCΚΛΗΠΙΩ ΚΑΙ ΥΓЄΙΑ ΝΙΚΑЄΙC Hygieia; CΩΤΗΡΙΑCΚΛΗ. Altar entwined by serpent;


517
Infant Dionysos in cradle (cf. Imh., Gr. M., p. 602); ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙCΤΗΝ Dionysos; ΑΓΑΘ. ΤΥΧΗ; ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΟΝ ΝΙΚΑΙЄΙC Statue of Alexander the Great (Imh., Kl. M., p. 9); Athletes drawing lots; ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ Homonoia; Sarapis and Caracalla in ship; River-god CΑΓΑΡΙC; ΙΠΠΑΡΧΟC Hipparchus the astronomer (Imh., Kl. M., p. 502); Herakles and Antaeos; ΙΠΠΟΝ ΒΡΟΤΟΠΟΔΑ Julius Caesar (as Mên ?) on his human-footed horse (N. C., 1891, p. 421; R. N., 1894, p. 301; B. M. C., Pont., p. 171, No. 118; Kubitschek, Rundschau über ein Quinquennium, p. 41); ΟΙ ΚΤΙCΤΑΙ Artemis and Dionysos; Signs of the Zodiac; Hephaestos standing; ΔΙΟΣ ΛΙΤΑΙΟΥ Altar; ΘΕΑ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙ; ΚΟΜΟΔΟΥ ΒΑCΙΛЄΥΟΝΤΟC Ο ΚΟCΜΟC ЄΥΤΥΧЄΙ within wreath; ΟΜΗΡΟC Homer; Lion’s head radiate (N. C., 1898, p. 106); ΘΗCЄΑ ΝΙΚΑЄΙC Theseus (Journ. Int., i. p. 25); the nymph ΝΕΙΚΑΙΑ (Journ. Int., i. p. 25 f.); Pan (Journ. Int., i. p. 28 f.); ΓΕΤΑΝ ΚΑΙCΑΡΑ ΝΙΚΑΙΕΙC Geta (N. Z., xxiii. p. 78); ΕΠΙ(phanaeφανη) ΤΕΛΕC(phoronφορον) ΝΙΚΑΙΕΙC Telesphoros (Z. f. N., xvii. 190); ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝΝΙΚΗΝ (Hunter Cat., Pl. XLVI. 11). Games. ΚΟΜΟΔЄΙΑ; ΙЄΡΟC ΑΓΩΝ; CЄΟΥΗΡЄΙΑ; ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦЄΙΑ; ΜЄΓΑΛΑ; ΔΙΟΝΥCΙΑ; ΠΥΘΙΑ; ΟΥΑΛЄ; ΓΑΛΛ; ΑΥΓΟΥ. Alliance. Byzantium and Nicaea.

Nicomedia (Ismid), on the northern side of the gulf of Astacus near its head, received its name from its founder Nicomedes I of Bithynia. It was the chief city of the Bithynian kingdom and the residence of the king. Autonomous bronze of the first century B.C., with the names of the Pro- consuls, C. Papirius Carbo, C. Vibius Pansa, and Thorius Flaccus, with dates according to Era beginning Sept. 282-1 B.C. (cf. Nicaea).

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Imperial— Claudius to Gallienus. Inscr., ΝЄΙΚΟΜΗΔЄΙΑC; ΝΙΚΟ- ΜΗΔЄΩΝ; ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟΥ, ΔΙC and ΤΡΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ; Η ΜΗΤΡΟ- ΠΟΛΙΟ; ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC; ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙC ΚΑΙ ΠΡΩΤΗ ΒΙΘΥΝΙΑC ΚΑΙ Π.; ΝΕΙΚ. ΠΡΩΤ. ΔΙΠΟΝΤ. ΚΑΙ ΒΕΙΘΥ. (Imh., Gr. M., p. 605); CЄΥΟΥΗΡΟΥ ΒΑCΙΛЄΥΟΝΤΟC Ο ΚΟCΜΟC ЄΥΤΥΧ(ε)Ι ΜΑΚΑΡΙΟΙ ΝΙΚΟΜΗΔЄΙC; ΠΡΩΤΗC ΑCΙΑC (Journ. Int., i. p. 32). On the earlier coins names of Proconsuls, some with addition of ΠΑΤΡΩΝ.

Types: ΗΡΑ ΛΑΝΟΙΑ = Juno Lanuvina (Imh., Gr. M., p. 604); ΕΙΡΗΝΗ; ΗΡΩC ΑΝΤΙΝΟΟC; ΔΗΜΗΤ Demeter; Hephaestos seated; CΤΟΛΟC male figure in rostral crown, holding rudder (B. M. C., Pont., p. 181); Ship; Asklepios; Serpent with human head; The Tyche of the City mounting prow; Radiate figure, serpent and eagle, at altar (B. M. C., Pont., p. xx); Aphrodite seated or standing, with apple (N. C., 1903, p. 332; Hunter Cat., p. 254); Argos constructing the Argo (N. Z., 1891, p. 17); Goddess holding model of temple (Pick in Jahresh. d. österreich. arch. Inst., vii. (1904), p. 7).

Alliance coins with Perinthus, Pergamum, Smyrna, and Laodiceia (Phryg.).

Prusa ad Olympum (Brûsa), on the northern slope of Mount Olympus. Autonomous Æ of first century B.C. with name of Proconsul, C. Papirius Carbo, dated from Era beginning Sept. 282-1 B.C. Imperial. Nero to Gallienus. Also quasi-autonomous. Inscr., ΠΡΟΥCΑЄΩΝ. Types: Mountain-god ΟΛΥΜΠΟC reclining (cf. Imh., Kleinas. M., p. 503); Nymph of Mount Olympos (Imh., Gr. M., p. 606); ΠΡΟΥCΑЄΙC ΔΙΑ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟΝ Zeus seated; Aphrodite Anadyomene; Eros; Poseidon;


518
Asklepios; Telesphoros; ΠΡΟΥCΑ the City-goddess; Helios; Ajax falling on sword; Caracalla, eagle and boar at altar; Selene on horse; ΠΕΙΕΡΟC Reclining River-god (Invent. Wadd.).— Games. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ; ΠΥΘΙΑ.

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Prusias ad Hypium (Uskub), south of the Euxine, on the river Hypius. Imperial— Vespasian to Gallienus. Inscr., ΠΡΟΥCΙЄΩΝ; ΠΡΟΥCΙЄΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΥΠΙΩ. Types: ΥΠΙΟC, River-god Hypios recum- bent; Demeter; Helios in chariot; Vase entwined by serpent; Caracalla sacrificing; Star and crescent; Youthful head (the founder (?): Journ. Int., i. p. 34).— Name of Proconsul, M. Plancius Varus, on coins of Vespasian.

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Prusias ad mare. See Cius, p. 513.

Tium (Filyas) on the Euxine, at the mouth of the river Billaeus. The earliest coins of Tium resemble those of Sesamus and Cromna. About B.C. 300 Tium, Cromna, Cytorus, and Sesamus were incorporated with the new city of Amastris. Of these towns Tium alone regained its autonomy probably in B.C. 282.

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End of fourth century B.C.
Head of Zeus. ΤΙΑΝΟΝ Eagle.
Æ .4
[Imh., Gr. M., p. 588 f.]

Circ. B.C. 282.
ΤΙΑΝΟΣ Female head in stephane and sphendone. [Imh., Gr. M., p. 588 f.; Invent. Wadd.] Eleutheria seated, inscribing ΕΛΕΥ- ΘΕΡΙΑ.
Æ .7

Autonomous Æ (Imh., Gr. M., p. 589) of first century B.C., with name of Proconsul, C. Papirius Carbo, dated from Era beginning Sept. 282-1 B.C.

Imperial. Domitian to Gallienus, also quasi-auton. Inscr., ΤΙΑΝΩΝ. Types: ΖΕΥΣ ΣΥΡΓΑΣΤΗΣ (or CΥΡΓΑCΤΗΙΟC) standing; ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΣ ΚΤΙΣΤ. standing; ΑΝΤΙΝΟΩΙ ΗΡΩΙ ΤΙΑΝΟΙ Antinoüs; River-god ΒΙΛΛΑΙΟC or ΒΙΛΛΑΟC; Head of the founder ΤЄΙΟC; ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΣ ΣΩΤ(aerαερ) standing; ΥΓЄΙΑ standing; Isis; Caduceus; ΝΕΙΚΗ standing; ΝЄΜЄCΙC standing; Zeus and signs of Zodiac; Hades seated; Vine; Statue of Dionysos between two river-gods, ΒΙΛΛΑΙΟC and CΑΡΔΩ. Bendis in chariot (Imh., Gr. M., p. 607, No. 147); Dionysos supported by Pan (ib., No. 148).


519

Kings of Bithynia

[Reinach, Trois Royaumes; L'hist. par les monn.; Wroth, B. M. C., Pontus, &c.; Waddington, Reinach and Babelon, Rec. gén. (Bithynie jusqu'à Juliopolis)].

Zipoetes I, B.C. 298-279 ?. No coins.

Nicomedes I, son of Zipoetes I, B.C. 279 ?-255 ?.

Head of Nicomedes I.
[Paris; Berlin: cf. B. M. C., Pont., p. xxxix.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΟΜΗΔΟΥ Female figure (Bendis ?), seated on rock holding spears.
AR Tetradrachm
(Attic standard, as all the AR of the Bithynian kings).
Id. Same inscr. Naked figure (Ares ?), seated on rock.
AR Dr.
(For Æ see B. M. C., Pont., p. xxxix f.; Journ. Int., 1898, p. 35; Rec. gén., p. 219.)

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Ziaëlas, son of Nicomedes I, B.C. 255 ?-235 ?.

Head of Ziaëlas. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΖΙΑΗΛΑ Trophy.
Æ .6
Wadd. Coll.; Journ. Int., 1898, p. 35. (Cf. Ath. Mittheil., 1905, p. 180.)

Prusias I, son of Ziaëlas, B.C. 238 ? - 183.

Head of Prusias I.
[Cf. B. M. C., Pont., p. xl.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΡΟΥΣΙΟΥ Zeus stand- ing, crowning the royal name; sym- bol, fulmen; various mons.
AR Tetr.
Head of Apollo. Same inscr. Athena, winged, standing.
Æ 1.1
Id.   „    „  Lyre.
Æ .7
Id.   „    „  Bow and quiver.
Æ .75
(See also Journ. Int., 1901, p. 67 f., Hermes types; and Rec. gén., p. 222 f.)

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Prusias II, son of Prusias I, B.C. 183 ? -149.

Head of Prusias II, with wing attached to his diadem.
[Cf. B. M. C., Pont., p. xl.]
Inscr. and type as Prusias I, but sym- bol, eagle on fulmen; various mons.
AR Tetr.
Id. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΡΟΥΣΙΟΥ Herakles standing.
Æ .7-.6
Head of Dionysos. Same inscr. Centaur Cheiron with lyre.
Æ .85-.75
Eagle. Same inscr. Fulmen.
Æ .75
(For other Æ, see B. M. C., Pont., p. xlii, and Rec. gén., p. 222 f.)

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Nicomedes II (Epiphanes), son of Prusias II, B.C. 149-120?.

Head of Nicomedes II.
[Paris, Tr. Boy., p. 134; Rec. gén., p. 227, No. 39.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΟΜΗΔΟΥ ΕΠΙ- ΦΑΝΟΥΣ Horseman with spear and round shield, galloping; with or without date, ‘160’.
AV over 131 grs.


520
coin image
FIG. 267.
Head of Nicomedes II. (Fig. 267.) ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΟ- ΜΗΔΟΥ Zeus standing, crowning the royal name; symbol, eagle on fulmen; various mons. and dates according to the Bithynian regal Era, beginning October 298 B.C. (Rec. gén., p. 217 on Era).
AR Tetradr.—
(For Æ of Nicomedes II, III, or IV, see Trois Roy., p. 134; Rec. gén., p. 233.)

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Nicomedes III (Euergetes), son of Nicomedes II, B.C. 120?-92? (see L'hist. par les monn., p. 167)— Tetradrachms resembling those of Nicomedes II, with various mons. and dates.

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Nicomedes IV (Philopator), B.C. 92 ?-74. Tetradrachms resembling those of Nicomedes II, with various mons. and dates.

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