Amantia. Autonomous bronze coins of the period of the Epirote Republic, B.C. 230-168, with Epirote types. Heads of Zeus Dodonaeos or of Zeus and Dione. Rev., Fulmen or serpent. Bust of Artemis. Rev. Torch. Inscr., ΑΜΑΝΤΩΝ. (Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 137, and B. M. C., Pl. XXXI. 10, 11.)
Apollonia. Colony of Corcyra. Silver coins of five periods:—
(i) Circ. B.C. 450-350, with Corcyrean types, Cow and Calf. Rev. ΑΠ, Conventional pattern usually called Gardens of Alkinoos, which I shall in future describe as a Square containing a stellate pattern, or as a Stellate square. (See infra, p. 325 f.) Staters of circ. 160 grs. Æ Lyre, Rx ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ Obelisk of Apollo (B. M. C., Pl. XII. 1, 2).
(ii) Circ. B.C. 350-300. Staters of Corinthian types and weight, reading ΑΠΟΛ, &c. (B. M. C., Corinth, Pl. XXVI. 1).
(iii) B.C. 229-100. New series of silver coins of the period during which Apollonia and Dyrrhachium were under the protection of Rome. These coins are of the weight of the Roman Victoriatus, circ. 52 grs. (see Haeberlin in Z. f. N., 1907, p. 238). Obv., Cow and Calf. Rev., Stellate square (B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XII. 3), and of the half Victoriatus, circ. 26 grs. Rev., Fire of the Nymphaeum. They bear magistrates’ names on both sides. It is supposed that the name on the obverse, in the nominative case, is that of the mint-master, and that the name on the reverse, in the genitive, stands probably for an eponymous annual magistrate. There are also bronze coins of two distinct series with identical types, an earlier and a later, each represented by two or more denominations. In the later series the weights seem to have been doubled (see Hunter Cat., II. pp. 2 ff.). Inscr., ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΑΤΑΝ (B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XII. 8-12).
|Head of Artemis, or veiled head.||Tripod within wreath. |
|Head of Dionysos.||Cornucopiae. |
|Head of Apollo.||Obelisk within wreath or lyre. |
(iv) From circ. B.C. 100 to Augustus. About B.C. 104 the Victoriatus was abolished at Rome, being assimilated to the Quinarius. From this time forwards the silver coins of Apollonia were issued on the standard of the Roman Denarius.
|Head of Apollo.|
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XII. 13.]
|Three nymphs dancing round the fire
of the Nymphaeum. |
AR 62 grs.
|Fire of the Nymphaeum.
[Congr. int., p. 113.]
AR 44 and 31 grs.
|Head of Athena. [Ibid., Pl. XII. 15.]||Obelisk. |
AR 29 grs.
|Lyre and quiver (?). [B. M.]||Obelisk. |
AR 13.5 grs.
(v) Imperial. Augustus to Geta. Inscr., ΑΠΟΛΛWΝΙΑΤΑΝ, ΝΕΡWΝΙ ΑΠΟΛΛWΝΙ ΚΤΙCΤΗ, ΝΕΡWΝΙ ΔΗΜΟCΙW ΠΑΤΡWΝΙ ΕΛΛΑΔΟC, &c. Types:—Three nymphs dancing; Obelisk of Apollo; Hades seated with a standing female figure before him carrying an infant in her arms; Apollo; Poseidon; Asklepios; River-god; Temple of Herakles; &c.
The Nymphaeum near Apollonia was sacred to Pan and the nymphs. It is described by Strabo (p. 316) Πετρα δ εστι πυρ aναδιδουσα, υπ aυτη δε κρηναι ρεουσι χλιαρου και ασφαλτου. The obelisk is that of Apollo Αγυιευς (see Ambracia, p. 320).
Byllis, on the north bank of the Aous, about twenty miles above Apollonia. Small bronze coins of the period of the Epirote Republic,
B.C. 230-168 (cf. coins of Amantia, p. 313). Inscr., ΒΥΛΛΙΟΝΩΝ or
1 For fuller information on the coins of Apollonia and Dyrrhachium and complete lists of magistrates, see A. Maier, N. Z., 1908, pp. 1 ff., published since the above was printed.
Daorsi. An Illyrian tribe which had been subject to king Genthius, on whose defeat by the Romans it obtained its freedom (Livy xlv. 26. 14). Bronze coins of the second century, after B.C. 168.
|Head of Hermes to r.
[Brunmid, p. 74.]
|ΔΑΟΡΣΩΝ Galley l. [Z. f. N., xiii.
p. 68]. |
Dyrrhachii. Epidamnus, the capital of the Dyrrhachians, was a colony of Corcyra of considerable importance. The money of this city down to about B.C. 100, when it comes to an end, falls into the same periods as that of Apollonia. The coins bear the name of the people and not of their chief town.
(i) B.C. 450-350. Silver staters of the Corcyrean standard, circ. 170 grs.
|Cow suckling calf.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XIII. 10.]
|ΔΥΡ Double stellate square.
(ii) Circ. B.C. 350-229. Staters, &c., of Corinthian types and weight (see Colonies of Corinth) (B. M. C., Cor., Pl. XXVI).
(iii) B.C. 229-100. New series of Dyrrhachian coins.
|Cow suckling calf.||ΔΥΡ Double stellate square [Brit. Mus.
Guide, Pl. LXV. 12]. |
AR 53 grs.
|Forepart of cow.|| „ Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XIV. 3]
AR 26 grs.
These coins are of the weight of the Roman Victoriatus and ½ Vic- toriatus, and bear the names of two magistrates, probably that of the eponymous annual magistrate in the genitive on the reverse, and that of the superintendent of the mint in the nominative on the obverse. (See note 1, p. 314.) The adjunct symbol on the obverse changes with the name on the reverse, and therefore belongs properly to it. The bronze coins, also with magistrates’ names, bear types relating to the worship of the Dodonaean Zeus, Herakles, Helios, Asklepios, &c.
Lissus. This town, at the mouth of the Drilo, was probably one of the colonies founded under the auspices of Dionysius of Syracuse, but the few coins which are known belong chiefly to the period of Macedonian supremacy, B.C. 211-197.
[N. C., 1880, Pl. XIII. 3.]
|ΛΙΣΣΙΤΑΝ Fulmen. |
King Genthius (infra, p. 316), B.C. 197-168, may also have struck a few of his own coins at Lissus; and after his defeat in the latter year by the Romans, Lissus again issued a few autonomous pieces.
|Head of Hermes (?) in petasos.
[Brunmid, Pl. VI. 93.]
|ΛΙΣΣΙ[ΤΑΝ] Galley. |
Oricus. A seaport in the neighbourhood of Apollonia, not far from the mouth of the Aous.
|Head of Zeus.
[Vienna Cat., I. Pl. V. 8.]
|ΩΡΙ[ΚΙ]ΩΝ Eagle on fulmen in oak-
|Head of Apollo.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XXXI. 13.]
|ΩΡΙΚΙΩΝ Obelisk of Apollo Agyieus,
in wreath. |
|Head of Athena.|| „ Fulmen. |
Rhizon. Bronze coins after circ. B.C. 168. Inscr., ΡΙΖΟ and ΡΙΖΟΝΙ- ΤΑΝ (?) (Num. Chron., 1880, p. 292, 295, and PL XIII. 9, 10; Brunmid, p. 75). Types similar to, but not identical with, those of the coins of King Ballaeus (infra, p. 317).
Scodra. The earliest coins of this town may be referred to the reign of Philip V of Macedon, who was supreme in Illyricum between B.C. 211 and 197.
|Macedonian shield. [Brunmid, p. 70.]||ΣΚΟΔΡΙΝΩΝ Helmet; all in wreath.
|Head of Zeus.||ΣΚΟΔΡΕΙΝΩΝ War galley and, some-
times, magistrate’s name. |
Monunius, circ. B.C. 300 or 280, king of the Dardanian Illyrians. He occupied Dyrrhachium and struck money there of the Dyrrhachian type.
|Cow suckling calf. (Fig. 178.)
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XIV. 10, 11.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΟΝΟΥΝΙΟΥ Double
stellate square. |
AR Staters, 160 grs.
On the coins of this king the Σ is sometimes written C, a form which is rarely met with at so early a date (Droysen, iii. 1. 184).
Genthius, circ. B.C. 197-168, probably succeeded to the Illyrian throne on the expulsion of Philip V of Macedon from his Illyrian possessions,
|Macedonian shield.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΓΕΝΘΙΟΥ Helmet Æ .6|
|Head of Genthius in kausia.
[Brunmid, p. 71.]
| „ „ Illyrian galley.
|Id.|| „ „ Fulmen. |
Ballaeus, known only from coins. The date of his reign is probably B.C. 167-135 (Num. Chron., 1880, p. 300; Brunmid, pp. 82 ff.).
|Head of king, bare.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XIV. 14.]
|ΒΑΛΛΑΙΟΥ or ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΛ-
ΛΑΙΟΥ Artemis with torch and two
spears, running, or Artemis standing.
AR 55 grs., and Æ .7-.6
The coins with the title Βασιλευς come chiefly from Risano (Rhizon); those without the regal title chiefly from the island of Lesina (Pharos).
[Imhoof, Num. Zeit., 1884, pp. 246-60.]
In the early part of the fourth century Dionysius of Syracuse began to turn his attention to the western coasts of Illyricum and the islands in the Adriatic sea. He assisted the Parians in colonizing the two islands of Issa and Pharos, B.C. 385 (Holm, Gesch. Sic., ii. 134). About the same time the island of Corcyra Nigra, so called from its dark pine forests, appears to have received a Greek colony. The money of a town named Heracleia, perhaps situate in the island of Pharos, in which the coins which bear its name are found, belongs also to this category (Brunmid, p. 54). The coins of the whole of this group are chiefly of the fourth and second centuries B.C. There are apparently few of the third.
Corcyra Nigra (?).
|Rude head of Apollo.||ΚΟΡΚΥΡΑΙΩΝ Ear of corn [Num.
Zeit., 1884, Pl. IV. 20]. |
|Head of Herakles in lion-skin.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XIV. 8.]
|ΗΡΑΚΛ, ΗΡΑΚ or ΗΡΑ Bow and club.
Æ .95 and .7
[Hunter Cat., Pl. XXXI. 11.]
|ΗΡΑ Dolphin. |
Issa. The earliest coins of this island belong to the fourth century B.C., and consist of heavy bronze pieces resembling in fabric the large
|ΙΣΣΑ Head of Artemis (?).||Star with eight rays. |
|Head of Athena.||ΙΣ Goat. |
|Head of Athena.||ΙΣ Stag with head turned back. |
|Head of Zeus (?).||Ι Σ Id. |
|ΙΣ Amphora.||Vine-branch with grapes. |
|Jugate heads.||ΙΣ Grapes. |
|Youthful head.||Ι Σ Kantharos. |
|Head of Zeus. [B. M. C., Pl. XV. 4.]||ΦΑΡ Goat standing. |
AR 41 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XV. 5.]||ΦΑΡΙΩΝ Id. symbol: sometimes,
|Head of Persephone.
[Brunmid, Pl. I.]
|ΦΑ Goat. |
|Head of young Dionysos ivy-crowned.
[B. M. C., p. 84, 11.]
|ΦΑ Grapes. |
|Young head laureate.
[B. M. C., Pl. XV. 8.]
| „ Kantharos. |
[Zeit. f. Num., i. 99, xvi. 3, xvii. 3, xxi. 258; Fox, 73; B. C. H., vi. 211.]
Damastium. The silver mines of this town are mentioned by Strabo, vii. p. 326. Its coins belong to the fourth century B.C., and may be compared for style with the money of the kings of Paeonia.
|Head of Apollo laur. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XV. 10-13; Pl. XVI. 1, 2.]||ΔΑΜΑΣΤΙΝΩΝ Tripod, often with
name, in the genitive, of dynast or
magistrate, ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΟ, ΚΑΚΙΟ,
ΚΗ, ΚΗΦΙ, ΚΗΦΙ[ΣΟΦΩ]ΝΤΟΣ,
ΣΩΚΡΑΤΙΔΑ, ΑΡΡΙΑ, &c.
AR Staters, Paeonian standard, circ. 206-190 grs.
|Female head with hair in net.
[Ibid., Pl. XVI. 4.]
|ΔΑΜΑΣΤΙΝΩΝ Large square ingot
marked with caduceus or swastika,
and with a handle attached, for
carrying it. (Svoronos, Journ. Int.,
1906, p. 176). |
AR 48 grs.
|Head of Apollo. [Ibid., Pl. XVI. 8.]||ΔΑΜΑΣΤΙΝΩΝ Pickaxe. |
AR 29 grs.
For other varieties see Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 135, and Num. Zeit., 1884, p. 260, where a silver coin weighing 50 grs. has on the obverse a female head, and on the reverse the proper name ΔΑΡΑΔΟ in a double linear square (Hunter Cat., Pl. XXXI. 13).
Pelagia. Silver coins of the same types as those of Damastium, but of ruder style. Inscr., ΠΕΛΑΓΙΤΩΝ or ΠΕΛΑΓΙΤΑΣ (B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XVI. 9-11 , Z. f. N., i. 99, xxi. 203).
Sarnoa. Probably identical with Σαρνους (Steph. Byz. s.v.). Coins similar to the above. Inscr., ΣΑΡΝΟΑΤΩΝ (Z. f. N., i. 113).
Tenestini. Similar AR coins. Inscr., ΤΕΝΕΣΤΙΝΩΝ (Hirsch Coll.).
These unknown tribes or towns were probably only small mining communities in the vicinity of Damastium (Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 136).